|Host city||Tokyo, Japan|
|Motto||United by Emotion[b]|
|Nations||206 (including EOR and ROC teams)|
|Events||339 in 33 sports (50 disciplines)|
|Opening||23 July 2021|
|Closing||8 August 2021|
|Stadium||Japan National Stadium (known as Olympic Stadium during Games)|
2020 Summer Paralympics
The 2020 Summer Olympics (Japanese: 2020年夏季オリンピック, Hepburn: Nisen Nijū-nen Kaki Orinpikku), officially the Games of the XXXII Olympiad (第三十二回オリンピック競技大会, Dai Sanjūni-kai Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai) and also known as Tokyo 2020 (東京2020, Tōkyō Nii Zero Nii Zero), was an international multi-sport event held from 23 July to 8 August 2021 in Tokyo, Japan, with some preliminary events that began on 21 July 2021. Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 7 September 2013.
The Games were originally scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020, but due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, on 24 March 2020, the event was postponed to 2021, the first such instance in the history of the Olympic Games (previous games had been cancelled but not rescheduled). However, the event retained the Tokyo 2020 branding for marketing purpose. It was largely held behind closed doors with no public spectators permitted due to the declaration of a state of emergency in the Greater Tokyo Area in response to the pandemic, the first and so far only Olympic Games to be held without official spectators.[c] The Games were the most expensive ever, with total spending of over $20 billion.
The 2020 Games were the fourth Olympic Games to be held in Japan, following the 1964 Summer Olympics (Tokyo), 1972 Winter Olympics (Sapporo), and 1998 Winter Olympics (Nagano). Tokyo became the first city in Asia to hold the Summer Olympic Games twice.[d] The 2020 Games were the second of three consecutive Olympics to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea and preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China. Due to the one-year postponement, Tokyo 2020 was the first and only Olympic Games to have been held in an odd-numbered year and the first Summer Olympics since the 1900 Games to be held in a non-leap year.
New events were introduced in existing sports for 2020, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and mixed gender team events in a number of existing sports, as well as the return of madison cycling for men and an introduction of the same event for women. New IOC policies also allowed the host organizing committee to add new sports to the Olympic program for just one Games. The disciplines added by the Japanese Olympic Committee were baseball and softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding, the last four of which made their Olympic debuts, and the last three of which will remain on the Olympic program.
The United States topped the medal count by both total golds (39) and total medals (113), with China finishing second by both respects (38 and 89). Host nation Japan finished third, setting a record for the most gold medals and total medals ever won by their delegation at an Olympic Games with 27 and 58. Great Britain finished fourth, with a total of 22 gold and 64 medals. The Russian delegation competing as the ROC finished fifth with 20 gold medals and third in the overall medal count, with 71 medals. Bermuda, the Philippines and Qatar won their first-ever Olympic gold medals. Burkina Faso, San Marino and Turkmenistan won their first-ever Olympic medals.
Host city selection
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013, at the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires, Argentina, using an exhaustive ballot system. None of the candidate cities won more than 50% of the votes in the first round; Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place, so a runoff vote was held to determine which of the two cities would be eliminated. The final vote was a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul. Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36, gaining at least the 49 votes required for a majority.
|City||Team||Round 1||Runoff||Round 2|
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
In January 2020, concerns were raised about the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on athletes and visitors to the Olympic Games. Tokyo organizers and the International Olympic Committee insisted they were monitoring the spread of the disease to minimize its effects on preparations for the Olympics. The IOC stated that in 2020, their Japanese partners and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe "made it very clear that Japan could not manage a postponement beyond next summer  at the latest". Unlike the case for Zika virus during the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted directly between humans, posing tougher challenges for the organizers to counteract the infectious disease and host a safe and secure event. Also unlike the case for H1N1 "swine flu" during the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, COVID-19 has a higher fatality rate, and there was no effective vaccine until December 2020. In a February 2020 interview, Conservative London mayoral candidate Shaun Bailey argued that London would be able to host the Olympic Games at the former 2012 Olympic venues should the Games need to be moved because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike criticized Bailey's comment as inappropriate. In early 2021, officials in the U.S. state of Florida offered to host the delayed Games in their state, while John Coates, the IOC vice president in charge of the Tokyo Olympics, said the Games would open even if the city and other parts of Japan were under a state of emergency because of COVID-19.
Estimates by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Kyoto University predicted that states of emergency might be required during the Games. The reports published at the Ministry of Health experts' panel also showed new patients increasing to 10,000 if the Games were to allow spectators.
Qualifying event cancellation and postponement
Concerns about the pandemic began to affect qualifying events in early 2020. Some that were due to take place in February were moved to alternative locations to address concerns about travelling to the affected areas, particularly China. For example, the women's basketball qualification was played in Belgrade, Serbia, instead of Foshan, China. The Asia & Oceania boxing qualification tournament, which was originally planned to be held from 3–14 February in Wuhan, China (the location of the original outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic), instead took place in Amman, Jordan, at the beginning of March. The third round of the women's football qualification tournament was also affected, as the group matches formerly scheduled to be held in China were moved to Australia. The European boxing qualification began on 14 March 2020 in London, United Kingdom, but was suspended after two days of competition before being rescheduled for April 2021. It eventually resumed in June 2021 but was moved to Paris, France, because of renewed concerns over travel to the United Kingdom. Other qualifying events that were due to take place in March to June 2020 began to be postponed until later in the year and mid-2021 as part of a wider suspension of international sporting competitions in response to the pandemic. A multitude of Olympic sports were affected, including archery, baseball, cycling, handball, judo, rowing, sailing, volleyball, and water polo.
Effect on doping tests
Mandatory doping tests were being severely restricted by the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020. European anti-doping organizations raised concerns that blood and urine tests could not be performed and that mobilizing the staff necessary to do so before the end of the pandemic would be a health risk. Despite the need for extensive testing to take place in advance of the Games, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) stated that public health and safety were their topmost priorities. The Chinese anti-doping agency temporarily ceased testing on 3 February 2020, with a planned resumption of phased testing towards the end of the month, and the anti-doping organizations in the United States, France, Great Britain, and Germany had reduced their testing activities by the end of March.
Postponement to 2021
The Tokyo Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games (TOCOG) released a statement on 2 March 2020, confirming that preparations for the upcoming Tokyo Olympics were "continuing as planned". On 23 March, both Canada and Australia indicated that they would withdraw from the Games if they were not postponed by a year. On the same day, Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe stated he would support a proposed postponement, citing that ensuring athlete safety was "paramount," and veteran IOC member and former vice president Dick Pound said that he expected the Games to be postponed.
On 24 March 2020, 122 days to go for the planned start, the IOC, TOCOG and prime minister Abe released a joint statement announcing that the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics would be rescheduled to a date "beyond 2020 but not later than summer 2021". They stated that the Games could "stand as a beacon of hope to the world during these troubled times", and that the Olympic flame could become "the light at the end of the tunnel in which the world finds itself at present". Prime Minister Abe stated that IOC president Thomas Bach responded "with 100% agreement" to his proposal to delay the Games. For continuity and marketing purposes, it was agreed that the Games would still be branded as Tokyo 2020 despite the change in schedule.
On 30 March 2020, the IOC and TOCOG announced that they had reached an agreement on the new dates for the 2020 Summer Olympics, which would now begin with the opening ceremony on 23 July 2021 and end with the closing ceremony on 8 August 2021, still to be held in Tokyo. The subsequent Winter Olympics in Beijing are scheduled to begin on 4 February 2022, less than six months later. Shortly before the postponement was confirmed, the IOC and Tokyo 2020 organizers formed a task force named "Here We Go" with the remit to address any issues arising from postponing the Games, such as sponsorship and accommodation. The organizers confirmed that all athletes who had already qualified for Tokyo 2020 would keep their qualification slots.
Calls for cancellation
Health experts expressed concern in April 2020 that the Games might have to be cancelled if the pandemic should persist. In an interview, the then president of TOCOG and former Japanese prime minister, Yoshirō Mori, asserted that the Games would be "scrapped" if they could not go ahead in 2021. On 29 April 2020, Prime Minister Abe stated that the Games "must be held in a way that shows the world has won its battle against the coronavirus pandemic". Thomas Bach acknowledged in an interview on 20 May 2020, that the job of reorganizing the Tokyo Games was "a mammoth task" and also admitted that the event would have to be cancelled altogether if it could not take place in the summer of 2021. However, both Mori and Bach expressed optimism about the Games going ahead.
A member of the Japanese COVID-19 Advisory Committee on the basic action policy co-authored a British Medical Journal editorial, which stated, "holding Tokyo 2020 for domestic political and economic purposes—ignoring scientific and moral imperatives—is contradictory to Japan's commitment to global health and human security".
On 21 January 2021, multiple sources reported that the Japanese government had "privately concluded" that the Games would have to be cancelled. The government dismissed the claims, stating that the reports were "categorically untrue". The new Japanese prime minister Yoshihide Suga confirmed on 19 February that the G7 had given unanimous support for the postponed Games to go ahead as scheduled. It was reported in April 2021, just three months before the start of the Games, that there was still the option to cancel the Tokyo Olympics with the country having vaccinated less than 1% of its population, with tens of thousands of volunteers expected to take part and athletes not being required to quarantine after arriving in Japan.
Public support for the Games in Japan decreased significantly amid a 2021 surge in COVID-19 cases in the country. Multiple organizations of medical professionals voiced oppositions to the Games, while an opinion poll in April 2021 saw 40% of participants support the cancellation of the Games, and 33% support a second postponement. In May 2021, 83% of those polled supported the cancellation or postponement of the Games. The Tokyo Medical Practitioners Association called for the cancellation, stating that hospitals in Tokyo "have their hands full and have almost no spare capacity" in an open letter to the prime minister. At least nine out of 47 elected governors supported the cancellation of the Games. Nearly 37% of Japanese companies surveyed supported the cancellation of the Games, and 32% supported postponement.
Kenji Utsunomiya, who had previously run for Governor of Tokyo, collected more than 351,000 signatures on a petition calling for the organisers to "prioritise life" over the Olympics. Japanese writers Jiro Akagawa and Fuminori Nakamura also called for the Games to be postponed or cancelled.
On 26 May 2021, the Asahi Shimbun newspaper, which was a local sponsor of the Games, published an editorial calling for Prime Minister Suga to "calmly and objectively assess the situation and decide on the cancellation of the event this summer." On 4 June it was reported that Japanese sponsors proposed to the organisers for "the Games to be postponed for several months," citing a comment by a corporate sponsor senior executive: "It just makes much, much more sense from our perspective to hold the Games when there are more vaccinated people, the weather is cooler and maybe public opposition is lower."
In July 2021, it was announced that all events in Tokyo were to be held behind closed doors with no spectators due to a new state of emergency. A poll by the Asahi Shimbun found that 55% of those surveyed supported the cancellation of the Olympics, and 68% felt that organisers would not be able to suitably control COVID-19 at the Games. The decision was also detrimental to local sponsors, which had planned in-person presences to promote their products during the Games; an executive of official sponsor Toyota stated that the company had pulled a television advertising campaign it had planned for the Games in Japan, citing that the Olympics were "becoming an event that has not gained the public's understanding."
Had the games been cancelled, it would have been the first time since World War II that an Olympic event had been called off and the first games to be scrapped due to circumstances unrelated to war.[e] A complete cancellation would have also cost Japan ¥4.52 trillion (US$41.5 billion), based on operating expenses and loss of tourism activity due to Japan had closed its international borders to foreign travellers since March 2020, and did not eventually reopen until October 2022, more than a year after the Games ended.
Costs and insurance
According to an estimate conducted by professor emeritus Katsuhiro Miyamoto of Kansai University and reported by the NHK in March 2020, the cost of delaying the 2020 Olympics by one year would be 640.8 billion yen (US$5.8 billion), taking maintenance expenditures for the unused facilities into account.
The Nomura Research Institute estimated that cancelling the Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics in 2021 would cost around 1.81 trillion yen ($17 billion), less than the economic damages projected if another state of emergency is declared, noting that a decision to hold the games "should be made based on the impact on infection risks, not from the standpoint of economic loss".
The Tokyo Games were protected through the commercial insurance marketplace Lloyd's of London, by global reinsurers Munich Re and Swiss Re. The IOC takes out around $800 million of insurance for each Summer Olympics, with the total amount of loss insured for the 2020 Games likely to be more than $2 billion.[needs update] The disruption caused by postponing the Games was covered by the insurance policy, with those likely to make claims for their financial losses including local organizers, sponsors, hospitality firms, and travel providers.[needs update]
Holders of tickets purchased from overseas prior to postponement were entitled to refunds for both Olympic and Paralympic ticket purchases, except for the costs of cancelled hotel bookings. Although about 600,000 Olympic tickets and 300,000 Paralympic tickets were eligible to be refunded, organizers said that they would not release the total costs of the refunds. Reuters quoted industry sources who estimated that the Tokyo Olympics Committee had taken out US$500–800 million in insurance, and that after accounting for costs such as rebooking sporting venues and the Olympic Village, little of that payout would be available to recoup the proceeds of lost and refunded ticket sales. The local organizers are responsible for ticket sales and use them to defray the costs of holding the games; ticket sales were expected to bring in approximately US$800 million, but actual sales were close to zero.
In June 2022, the Tokyo Organizing Committee revealed in the final budget report for the Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics that the cost for the Olympic Games was 640.4 billion yen (US$5.8 billion [f]), which higher than the cost for the Rio 2016.
Public opinion and COVID-19 effect during and after the Games
Prior to the Tokyo Olympics being held, many Japanese people were negative about hosting the event, but their attitudes had become more positive towards the end of the Games. According to a public opinion poll conducted jointly by the Nippon News Network and the Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper, which targeted Japanese citizens at the end of the Olympics, 38% of respondents said that it was possible to hold the Olympics in a safe manner against COVID-19, while 55% said that it was not possible. However, 64% answered that it was good that the Tokyo Games had gone ahead, while 28% answered that they wished the event had not been held. Of the respondents, 61% were glad the event had been held without spectators and only 12% said that spectators should have been allowed.
On 29 July, less than a week into the Games, journalist Masaki Kubota reported his analysis of the Japanese people's perspective on the Olympics, which he believed was greatly influenced by the change in the way the Japanese news media reported on the Games. He pointed out that many Japanese news media had insisted on canceling the Olympics, citing fears that COVID-19 would spread, but once Japanese athletes started winning medals, the media changed their reporting policy and began livening up the Olympics, which had the effect of altering public opinion in Japan.
Once the Tokyo Olympics were underway, followed by the Tokyo Paralympics, there was a sharp increase in COVID-19 cases in Japan, especially those caused by the Delta variant. On 26 July, there were 60,157 cases detected in Japan, breaking the record of 44,961 cases recorded on 10 May. On 9 August, one day after the Olympics had ended, daily cases in Japan reached 100,000 for the first time, and new cases continued to increase until the peak on 23 August, when 156,931 cases were recorded.
Development and preparation
The Tokyo Organizing Committee was originally headed by former Japanese prime minister Yoshirō Mori, but he resigned in February 2021 due to backlash from sexist comments about women in meetings. Seiko Hashimoto was chosen to succeed him. Tamayo Marukawa, Minister for the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games, was responsible for overseeing the preparations on behalf of the Japanese government.
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government set aside a fund of ¥400 billion (more than US$3.67 billion) to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Japanese government was considering easing airspace restrictions to allow an increased slot capacity at both Haneda and Narita airports. A new railway line was planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, and from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes; funded primarily by private investors, the line would cost ¥400 billion. The East Japan Railway Company (JR East) was also planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport.
There were plans to fund the accelerated completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway, and Ken-Ō Expressway, and the refurbishment of other major expressways in the area. The Yurikamome automated transit line was also to be extended from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the line was not expected to have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own.
In June 2020, the chief executive of the Organizing Committee, Toshirō Mutō, stated that the committee was exploring options for streamlining the Games to achieve cost savings. On 25 September, the IOC and Tokyo Organizing Committee agreed to a suite of measures to simplify the Games' logistics, including a cut to non-athlete staff, use of online meetings, and streamlined transport, among others. The committee also outlined areas it would be exploring in order to maintain the health and safety of all participants.
Venues and infrastructure
In February 2012, it was announced that Tokyo's former National Stadium, the central venue for the 1964 Summer Olympics, would undergo a ¥100 billion renovation for the 2019 Rugby World Cup and the 2020 Summer Olympics. In November 2012, the Japan Sport Council announced that it was taking bids for proposed stadium designs. Of the 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects was awarded the project, which would replace the old stadium with a new 80,000-seat stadium. There was criticism of the Zaha Hadid design—which was compared to a bicycle helmet and regarded as clashing with the surrounding Meiji Shrine—and widespread disapproval of the costs, even with attempts to revise and "optimize" the design.
In June 2015, the government announced plans to reduce the new stadium's permanent capacity to 65,000 in its athletics configuration (although with the option to add up to 15,000 temporary seats for football) as a further cost-saving measure. The original plan to build a retractable roof was also abandoned. At the end of 2015, as a result of public opposition to the increasing costs of the new stadium (which had reached ¥252 billion), the government chose to reject Zaha Hadid's design entirely and selected a new design by Japanese architect Kengo Kuma. Inspired by traditional temples and with a lower profile, Kuma's design had a budget of ¥149 billion. The changes meant the new stadium could not be completed in time for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as originally intended. The National Stadium, which was inaugurated on 21 December 2019, was named the Olympic Stadium for the duration of the Tokyo Games.
Of the 33 competition venues in Tokyo, 28 were within 8 kilometers (5 miles) of the Olympic Village, with eleven new venues to be constructed. On 16 October 2019, the IOC announced that there were plans to re-locate the marathon and racewalking events to Sapporo for heat concerns. The plans were made official on 1 November 2019 after Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike accepted the IOC's decision, despite her belief that the events should have remained in Tokyo.
In December 2018, the Japanese government chose to ban drones from flying over venues being used for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. A similar ban was also imposed for the 2019 Rugby World Cup, which Japan also hosted. In January 2020, counterterrorism drills began in different parts where the Games would take place, after intelligence data showed that terrorist groups could have carried out an attack seeking worldwide attention. In July 2021, prior to the start of the Games, the Japan Coast Guard conducted counterterrorism drills in the Tokyo Bay. The drill consisted of two inflatable boats trying to stop a suspicious ship from getting to shore.
Applications for volunteering at the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games were accepted beginning on 26 September 2018. By 18 January 2019, a total of 204,680 applications had been received by the Tokyo Organizing Committee. Interviews to select the requisite number of volunteers began in February 2019, with training scheduled to take place in October 2019. The volunteers at the venues were to be known as "Field Cast", and the volunteers in the city were to be known as "City Cast". These names were chosen from a shortlist of four from an original 150 pairs of names; the other three shortlisted names were "Shining Blue" and "Shining Blue Tokyo", "Games Anchor" and "City Anchor", and "Games Force" and "City Force". The names were chosen by the people who had applied to be volunteers at the Games.
As of early June 2021, approximately 10,000 out of the 80,000 registered volunteers resigned from the Games. Media attributed the rise in pandemic cases as the reason for massive quitting. More volunteer assignments were expected to be cancelled due to the spectator ban.
In February 2017, the Tokyo Organizing Committee announced an electronics recycling program in partnership with Japan Environmental Sanitation Center and NTT Docomo, soliciting donations of electronics such as mobile phones to be reclaimed as materials for the medals. Aiming to collect eight tonnes of metals to produce the medals for the Olympic and Paralympic Games, collection boxes were deployed at public locations and NTT Docomo retail shops in April 2017. A design competition for the medals was launched in December of that year.
In May 2018, the organizing committee reported that they had obtained half the required 2,700 kilograms of bronze but were struggling to obtain the required amount of silver; although bronze and silver medals purely utilize their respective materials, IOC requirements mandate that gold medals utilize silver as a base. The collection of bronze was completed in November 2018, with the remainder estimated to have been completed by March 2019.
On 24 July 2019 (one year ahead of the originally scheduled opening ceremony), the designs of the medals were unveiled. The medals for the Olympic and Paralympic Games were designed by Junichi Kawanishi following a nationwide competition. A new feature shared with the Paralympic medals is that the ribbons contain one, two, or three silicone convex lines to distinguish gold, silver, and bronze medals, respectively.
As determined by a 2009 IOC ruling that banned international torch relays for any future Olympic Games, the 2020 Summer Olympics torch was scheduled to only visit the two countries of Greece and the host nation Japan. The first phase of the relay began on 12 March 2020, with the traditional flame lighting ceremony at the Temple of Hera in Olympia, Greece. The torch then travelled to Athens, where the Greek leg of the relay culminated in a handover ceremony at the Panathenaic Stadium on 19 March, during which the torch was transferred to the Japanese contingent. The flame was placed inside a special lantern and transported from Athens International Airport on a chartered flight to Higashimatsushima in Japan. The torch was then expected to begin the second phase of its journey on 20 March, as it traveled for one week around the three most affected areas of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami—Miyagi, Iwate and Fukushima—where it would go on display under the heading "Flame of Recovery". After leaving Naraha on 26 March, the torch would commence its main relay around Japan, incorporating all 47 prefectural capitals.
After the decision to postpone the Games was made, the torch was placed again in a special lantern on display in the city of Fukushima for a month. After that, the lantern was transferred to the Tokyo prefecture, where it was kept safe until the restart of the relay in 2021. On 23 July 2020 (one year ahead of the rescheduled opening ceremony), a promotional video was released featuring Japanese swimmer Rikako Ikee carrying the lantern inside Japan National Stadium, drawing comparisons between emergence from the pandemic and her own return to sport after being diagnosed with leukemia. On 20 August 2020, it was announced that the torch relay would begin again in Naraha, Fukushima on 25 March 2021, nearly a year later than originally planned.
The relay ended at Tokyo's National Stadium (Olympic Stadium) on 23 July, with tennis player Naomi Osaka lighting the Olympic cauldron at the finale of the opening ceremony. The cauldron lit in the Olympic Stadium was only used during the Opening and Closing ceremonies: a separate cauldron was lit on the Tokyo waterfront for public view at the Yume no Ohashi bridge in Odaiba, making it only the second time in olympic history where the cauldron was not displayed in the athletics stadium, the other time being in 2016.
In February 2021, the IOC began releasing "playbooks" containing details on planned COVID-19 biosecurity protocols for athletes, officials, the press, and other staff, including standard protocols such as practicing social distancing, hygiene, the wearing of face masks (outside of training and competition for athletes), and being restricted from visiting bars, restaurants, shops, and other tourist areas around Greater Tokyo Area, or using public transport unless otherwise permitted. Participants would be asked to use Japan's COCOA Exposure Notification app and would be tested at least every four days. Athletes who tested positive would be unable to compete and could be quarantined at a government facility (although leeway would be given in the event of false positives). Close contacts would also need to test negative in order to be cleared for competition. Athletes would be discouraged from "excessive" celebrations because the actions could spread infected droplets. The playbooks were criticized in a paper published by The New England Journal of Medicine in May 2021, for lacking "scientifically rigorous risk assessment" and failing to "distinguish the various levels of risk faced by athletes". The playbook stated that the athletes were required to arrive up to five days prior to the start of the competition and to leave within 48 hours of being eliminated from their sport or the conclusion of the competitions.
The IOC recommended the vaccination of athletes against COVID-19 if vaccines were available to them, but this was not a prerequisite for participation and the IOC advised against athletes "jumping the queue" in order to obtain priority over essential populations. On 12 March 2021, Thomas Bach announced that in nations where they were approved for use, the Chinese Olympic Committee had offered to cover the costs of the Chinese CoronaVac and the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine for athletes competing in the 2020 Summer Olympics and 2022 Winter Olympics, and would purchase two doses for their nation's general public for each vaccinated athlete. On 6 May 2021, Pfizer announced that it would donate doses of its vaccine to NOCs competing in Tokyo.
Approximately 93,000 athletes and officials were exempt from the quarantine rules upon arriving in Japan, provided that they remained in areas separated from the local population. With around 300,000 local staff and volunteers entering and exiting these bubbles, and 20,000 vaccine doses allocated for this group, this led to concerns of COVID-19 spreading both during the Games and when teams returned to their countries.
Due to international travel restrictions, the organizing committee announced in March 2021 that no international guests (including spectators, and friends and family members of the athletes) would be allowed to attend the Games. As per existing guidance for spectator sports in Japan, spectators would be asked to refrain from cheering or shouting. On 19 June 2021, Governor Koike announced that plans for public viewing events for the Games had been scrapped, in order to use the planned venues (such as Yoyogi Park) as mass vaccination sites instead. On 21 June, it was announced that all venues would be capped at a maximum of 10,000 ticketed spectators or 50% capacity, whichever was lower.
On 2 July 2021, the new TOCOG president Seiko Hashimoto warned that there was still a possibility of the Games being held behind closed doors because of rising COVID-19 cases in the country. Japan's slow vaccination rate had been of particular concern. A simulation run by the University of Tokyo in May 2021 projected that a new wave of infections could peak in mid-October if the Games went on after the existing state of emergency in Tokyo had expired.
On 8 July 2021, after Tokyo had recorded 920 new COVID-19 cases (its highest increase since May), Prime Minister Suga declared a new state of emergency in the Tokyo area from 12 July through 22 August (ending only two days before the Paralympics' opening ceremony), and announced that all events at venues in the area would therefore be held behind closed doors with no spectators permitted. Hashimoto stated that "it is extremely regrettable that the Games will be staged in a very limited manner in the face of the spread of novel coronavirus infections." IOC President Thomas Bach stated that "we will support any measure which is necessary to have a safe and secure Olympic and Paralympic Games for the Japanese people and all the participants."
The announcement stated that spectators would still be allowed at events being held outside of Tokyo, subject to the approval by local health authorities and the aforementioned 50%/10,000-spectator limit. The prefectures of Fukushima, Hokkaido and Ibaraki announced that they would prohibit spectators at events held in the areas. The opening ceremony was expected to be limited to fewer than 1,000 VIP guests, including IOC representatives and dignitaries, while some events did allow members of other competing delegations to occupy spectator seats as well. School students were invited to watch football matches in Ibaraki.
On 16 July, it was reported that Bach had asked Prime Minister Suga about the possibility that restrictions on spectators could be eased later on if COVID-19 conditions were to improve in Tokyo. However, on 2 August, Suga announced that all existing state of emergency declarations would be extended through 31 August, and be extended to Chiba, Kanagawa, Saitama, and parts of Osaka.
The opening ceremony tickets were expected to range from ¥12,000 to ¥300,000, with a maximum price of ¥130,000 for the finals of the athletics track and field events. The average ticket price was ¥7,700, with half the tickets being sold for up to ¥8,000. A symbolic ticket price of ¥2,020 was expected for families, groups resident in Japan, and in conjunction with a school program. Tickets would be sold through 40,000 shops in Japan and by mail order to Japanese addresses through the internet. International guests, had they been allowed, would have needed to visit Japan during the sales period, or arrange to buy tickets through a third party such as a travel agent.
Tickets went on general sale in Japan in the autumn of 2019 and were expected to be sold globally from June 2020; however, this plan was suspended when the Games were postponed on 24 March 2020. The Tokyo Organizing Committee confirmed that tickets already purchased would remain valid for the same sessions according to the new schedule and that refunds were also being offered.
On 20 March 2021, it was announced that due to COVID-19-related concerns, no international guests would be allowed to attend the 2020 Olympics or Paralympics. This included both spectators, as well as the friends and family of athletes. All overseas ticketholders would be refunded. Hashimoto cited uncertainties surrounding international travel restrictions, and goals to preserve the safety of all participants and spectators, and not place a burden on the health care system. It was ultimately announced in July that all local spectators were not allowed to attend any events held in Tokyo, Fukushima and Hokkaido.
A cultural program known as Nippon Festival was scheduled to coincide with the Olympics and Paralympics, running from April to September 2021 as a series of streaming events held by the Tokyo Organizing Committee and other partners. The events reflected the themes of "Participation and Interaction", "Towards the Realisation of an Inclusive Society" and "Reconstruction of the Tohoku Region". The program was either downsized or reformatted to virtual format due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the postponement of the Games. One of these events was a concert held on 18 July, which featured J-rock band Wanima, choreography by dancers Aio Yamada and Tuki Takamura, and the presentation of animated "creatures" based on illustrations "embodying the thoughts and emotions of people from across the world".
The original plans for Nippon Festival included events such as Kabuki x Opera (a concert that would have featured stage actor Ichikawa Ebizō XI, opera singers Anna Pirozzi and Erwin Schrott, and the Tokyo Philharmonic Orchestra), an arts and culture festival focusing on disabilities, and a special two-day exhibition sumo tournament at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan shortly after the Olympics—which would have differed significantly from the traditional bi-monthly Honbasho tournaments, and featured special commentary in English and Japanese to help explain to spectators the customs and traditions of professional sumo, which are deeply rooted in the Shinto religion.
The opening ceremony was held on 23 July 2021 in the Olympic Stadium in Tokyo. It included the traditional Parade of Nations. Emperor Naruhito formally opened the Games, and at the end of the torch relay the Olympic cauldron was lit by Japanese tennis player Naomi Osaka.
For the first time in the 2020 Olympic Games, it was decided that one male and one female in each country would take turns holding flags and serve as two of them. This was done by embodying the "Agenda 2020" set during President Bach's term.
The event program for the 2020 Summer Olympics was approved by the IOC executive board on 9 June 2017. IOC president Thomas Bach stated that their goal was to give the Games "youthful" and "urban" appeal, and to increase the number of female participants.
The Games featured 339 events in 33 different sports, encompassing a total of 50 disciplines. Karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding made their Olympic debut, while baseball and softball also made a one-off return to the Summer Olympics for the first time since 2008. 15 new events within existing sports were also added, including 3×3 basketball, freestyle BMX, and the return of madison cycling, as well as 9 new mixed events in several sports (table tennis, archery, judo, shooting (3), triathlon, 4 × 400 m relay running and 4 × 100 m medley swimming).
In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.
|2020 Summer Olympic Sports program|
On 12 February 2013, with a remit to control the cost of the Games and ensure they are "relevant to sports fans of all generations", the IOC Executive Board recommended the removal of one of the 26 sports contested at the 2012 Summer Olympics, leaving a vacancy which the IOC would seek to fill at the 125th IOC Session. The new entrant would join golf and rugby sevens (which would both debut in 2016) as part of the program of 28 "core" sports. Five sports were shortlisted for removal, including canoe, field hockey, modern pentathlon, taekwondo, and wrestling. In the final round of voting by the executive board, eight members voted to remove wrestling from the Olympic program. Hockey and taekwondo were both tied in second with three votes each.
The decision to drop wrestling surprised many media outlets, given that the sport's role in the Olympics dates back to the ancient Olympic Games, and was included in the original program for the modern Games. The New York Times felt that the decision was based on the shortage of well-known talent and the absence of women's events in the sport. Out of the shortlist from the IOC vote, Wrestling was duly added to the shortlist of applicants for inclusion in the 2020 Games, alongside the seven new sports that were put forward for consideration.
On 29 May 2013, it was announced that three of the eight sports under consideration had made the final shortlist: baseball/softball, squash and wrestling. The other five sports were rejected at this point: karate, roller sports, sport climbing, wakeboarding, and wushu. At the 125th IOC Session on 8 September 2013, wrestling was chosen to be included in the Olympic program for 2020 and 2024. Wrestling secured 49 votes, while baseball/softball and squash received 24 votes and 22 votes respectively.
With the adoption of the Olympic Agenda 2020 in December 2014, the IOC shifted from a "sport-based" approach to the Olympic program to an "event-based" program—establishing that organizing committees may propose discretionary events to be included in the program to improve local interest. As a result of these changes, a shortlist of eight new proposed sports was unveiled on 22 June 2015, consisting of baseball/softball, bowling, karate, roller sports, sport climbing, squash, surfing, and wushu. On 28 September 2015, the Tokyo Organizing Committee submitted their shortlist of five proposed sports to the IOC: baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding. These five new sports were approved on 3 August 2016 by the IOC during the 129th IOC Session in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and were included in the sports program for 2020 only, bringing the total number of sports at the 2020 Olympics to 33.
A total of 56 test events were scheduled to take place in the run-up to the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics. Two of the events were held in late 2018, but the main test event schedule commenced in June 2019 and was originally due to be completed in May 2020 prior to the start of the Olympics. Several of the events were incorporated into pre-existing championships, but some have been newly created specifically to serve as Olympic test events for the 2020 Summer Games.
In February 2019, it was announced that the test events would be branded under the banner "Ready, Steady, Tokyo". The Tokyo Organizing Committee is responsible for 22 of the test events, with the remaining events being arranged by national and international sports federations. The first test event was World Sailing's World Cup Series, held at Enoshima in September 2018. The last scheduled event is the Tokyo Challenge Track Meet, which was originally due to take place at the Olympic Stadium on 6 May 2020.
All test events originally scheduled to take place from 12 March 2020 onwards were postponed due to COVID-19, with the test event calendar to be reviewed during the preparations for the rescheduled Games.[g]
Participating National Olympic Committees
The Republic of Macedonia has competed under the provisional name "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" in every Summer and Winter Games since its debut in 1996 because of the disputed status of its official name. The naming disputes with Greece ended in 2018 with the signing of the Prespa agreement, and the country was officially renamed North Macedonia in February 2019. The new name was immediately recognized by the IOC, although the Olympic Committee of North Macedonia (NMOC) was not officially adopted until February 2020. The NMOC sent a delegation to the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics in January 2020, but the Tokyo Games were North Macedonia's first appearance at the Summer Olympics under its new name.
On 9 December 2019, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) banned Russia from all international sport for a period of four years, after the Russian government was found to have tampered with laboratory data that it had provided to WADA in January 2019 as a condition of the Russian Anti-Doping Agency being reinstated. As a result of the ban, WADA planned to allow individually cleared Russian athletes to take part in the 2020 Summer Olympics under a neutral banner, as instigated at the 2018 Winter Olympics, but they would be excluded from team sports. The head of WADA's Compliance Review Committee, Jonathan Taylor, stated that the IOC would not be able to use the "Olympic Athletes from Russia" (OAR) designation as it did in 2018, emphasizing that neutral athletes could not be portrayed as representing a specific country. Russia later filed an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) against WADA's decision. After reviewing the case on appeal, CAS ruled on 17 December 2020 that the penalty placed on Russia be reduced. Instead of a total ban from all sporting events, the ruling allowed Russia to participate at the Olympics and other international events, but the team would not be permitted to use the Russian name, flag, or anthem for a period of two years and must present themselves as "Neutral Athlete" or "Neutral Team". The ruling does allow for "Russia" to be displayed on the team uniform—although it should be no more visible than the "Neutral Athlete/Team" designation—as well as the use of the Russian flag's colors within the uniform's design.
On 19 February 2021, it was announced that Russia would compete under the acronym "ROC" after the name of the Russian Olympic Committee although the name of the committee itself in full could not be used to refer to the delegation. The ROC team would be represented by the flag of the Russian Olympic Committee.
On 6 April 2021, North Korea announced that it would not participate in the 2020 Summer Olympics because of COVID-19 concerns. This marked North Korea's first absence from the Summer Olympics since 1988. In September, a month after the games concluded, the Olympic Committee of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was banned from participation in the 2022 Winter Olympics, after they failed to participate in the Tokyo Olympics. On 21 July 2021, Guinea announced it would not be sending a delegation to the Tokyo Olympics, allegedly due to COVID-19 concerns, though media outlets suggested that financial considerations may have been the real motivating factor. Guinea later reversed the decision and confirmed that it would be participating.
Number of athletes by National Olympic Committee
|Totals (93 entries)||340||338||402||1080|
There were two podium sweeps, as follows:
|27 July||Cycling||Women's cross-country mountain biking||Switzerland||Jolanda Neff||Sina Frei||Linda Indergand|||
|31 July||Athletics||Women's 100 metres||Jamaica||Elaine Thompson-Herah||Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce||Shericka Jackson|||
Naoki Satō composed the music for the medal ceremonies. Satō chose not to employ any musical elements distinctive to Japan "because victory ceremonies are for athletes from around the world" and he wanted all medalists to "feel at ease" when taking their places on the podium, regardless of their nationality.
The bouquets presented to the athletes came from regions affected by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. The individual flowers were selected to represent the prefectures of Miyagi, Fukushima, Iwate, and Tokyo. The sunflowers were grown in Miyagi, planted by families whose children had died during the disaster; the white and purple eustomas and Solomon's seals were provided by a non-profit initiative to boost the local economy in Fukushima; the small bright blue gentians were grown in Iwate; and aspidistras, grown in Tokyo, were chosen to complete the bouquets.
The 2020 schedule by session was approved by the IOC Executive Board on 18 July 2018, with the exception of swimming, diving, and artistic swimming. A more detailed schedule by event was released on 16 April 2019, still omitting a detailed schedule for the boxing events. A detailed boxing schedule was released in late 2019.
The original schedule was from 22 July to 9 August 2020. To postpone the Olympics until 2021, all events were delayed by 364 days (one day less than a full year to preserve the same days of the week), giving a new schedule of 21 July to 8 August 2021.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Gold medal events||CC||Closing ceremony|
|Daily medal events||11||18||21||22||23||17||21||21||25||20||26||17||27||23||34||13||339|
Per the historical precedent of swimming at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing and figure skating at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, swimming finals were held in the morning to allow live primetime broadcasts in the Americas. NBC paid substantial fees for rights to the Olympics, so the IOC has allowed NBC to influence event scheduling to maximize U.S. television ratings when possible. On 7 May 2014, NBC agreed to a US$7.75 billion contract extension to air the Olympics through the 2032 games, which is one of the IOC's major sources of revenue. Japanese broadcasters were said to have criticized the decision, as swimming is one of the most popular Olympic events in the country.
The official emblems for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 25 April 2016; designed by Asao Tokolo, who won a nationwide design contest, it takes the form of a ring in an indigo-colored checkerboard pattern. The design was meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan". The checkered design resembles a pattern called ichimatsu moyo that was popular during the Edo period in Japan from 1603 to 1867. The designs replaced a previous emblem which had been scrapped after allegations that it plagiarized the logo of the Théâtre de Liège in Belgium. The Games' bid slogan was Discover Tomorrow (Japanese: 未来をつかもう, romanized: Ashita o tsukamō). While ashita literally means "tomorrow", it is intentionally spelled as mirai, "future". The official slogan United by Emotion was unveiled on 17 February 2020. The slogan was used solely in English.
The official mascot of the 2020 Summer Olympics was Miraitowa, a figure with blue-checkered ichimatsu moyo patterns inspired by the Games' official emblem. Its fictional characteristics include the ability to teleport. Created by Japanese artist Ryo Taniguchi, the mascots were selected from a competition process which took place in late 2017 and early 2018. A total of 2,042 candidate designs were submitted to the Tokyo Organizing Committee, which selected three pairs of unnamed mascot designs to present to Japanese elementary school students for the final decision. The results of the selection were announced on 28 February 2018, and the mascots were named on 22 July 2018. Miraitowa is named after the Japanese words for "future" and "eternity", and Someity is named after someiyoshino, a type of cherry blossom. Someity's name also refers to the English phrase "so mighty". The mascots were expected to help finance the Tokyo Games through merchandizing and licensing deals. For the legacy of the games on 3 January 2022, Ryo Taniguchi created Miraity (the future child of the mascots).
Look of the Games
Alongside the main Emblem blue, the five other colors used in the branding of the 2020 Games were : Kurenai red, Ai blue, Sakura pink, Fuji purple, and Matsuba green. These five traditional colors of Japan were used as sub-colors to create points of difference in the color variations.
Concerns and controversies
Several controversial issues occurred during the preparations for the Tokyo Games. There were allegations of bribery in the Japanese Olympic Committee's (JOC) bid and of plagiarism in the initial design for the Games' logo. On 10 December 2018, the French financial crimes office began an investigation of Tsunekazu Takeda, the president of the Japanese Olympic Committee, concerning a 2013 scheme to obtain votes from African IOC members in support of Tokyo as host for the 2020 Olympics over Istanbul or Madrid. In March 2020, a Japanese businessman admitted to giving gifts, including cameras and watches, to IOC officials in order to lobby for their support of Tokyo's bid to host the Olympic Games. The official emblems of the Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics, designed by Kenjirō Sano, were unveiled in July 2015 but were withdrawn and replaced following plagiarism accusations. The lawsuit by Olivier Debie, who claimed that his logo design was copied, was later dropped, with the designer citing escalating legal costs.
Mass logging for construction of the Olympic venues received international criticism. Petitions, containing more than 140,000 signatures in total, were delivered to the Japanese embassies in Switzerland and Germany, expressing concerns over claims of using tropical wood sourced from Shin Yang, a Malaysian company with a record of human rights abuses, illegal logging, and rainforest destruction. In February 2018, the Olympics Organizing Committee admitted that 87% of plywood panels used to build the new national stadium was sourced from endangered rainforests.
Portions of the Games were scheduled for locations impacted by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The hosting of events in these locations was promoted as a means of furthering recovery in the regions, with the Games sometimes being promoted as the "Recovery Olympics" (復興五輪, Fukkō Gorin). However, the organization of events in these regions has faced criticism; Fukushima is considered safe by the World Health Organization and the United Nations, although scientific studies on the safety of the area are still disputed. Some Tōhoku residents questioned the decision to use the region as a host site, arguing that preparations for the Games slowed down recovery efforts, and that the region lost workers to projects associated with the Games.
It was widely reported by international media that South Korea had asked the IOC to ban the Japanese Rising Sun Flag from the 2020 Summer Olympics, claiming it to be a symbol of Japan's imperialist past, recalling "historic scars and pain" for people of Korea just as the swastika "reminds Europeans of the nightmare of World War II". Use of the flag in international sporting events such as the Olympic Games is controversial because it was used for waging aggressive war against many countries in Pacific regions, including the Attack on Pearl Harbor. According to the Associated Press, the IOC issued a statement in response to South Korea's request, saying, "sports stadiums should be free of any political demonstration. When concerns arise at games time we look at them on a case by case basis." Russian and South Korean officials took issue with a map of the torch relay on the Games' official website, which depicted the disputed Liancourt Rocks (governed by South Korea) and Kuril Islands (governed by Russia since 1945) as part of Japan.
In February 2021, the TOCOG president Yoshirō Mori resigned, after facing both domestic and international criticisms over his sexist remarks. The previous conduct of the new president, Seiko Hashimoto, has also drawn criticisms, leading her to comment "I regret it and think I should be careful" on one of the accusations. The head creative director for the opening and closing ceremonies, Hiroshi Sasaki, resigned in March 2021, after making demeaning comments about Naomi Watanabe. Sasaki's replacement, Kentarō Kobayashi, was dismissed by the Organizing Committee the day before the opening ceremony, after it was reported by Japanese media that he had made a joke about the Holocaust in a script for his comedy in 1998, saying "Let's play Holocaust." On the eve of the opening ceremony, Yoshihide Suga, the Prime Minister of Japan and the Supreme Advisor of the Organizing Committee, described Kobayashi's jokes as "outrageous and unacceptable", but also said that the opening ceremony, which was directed by Kobayashi, should proceed as planned.
The composer for the opening ceremony, Keigo Oyamada, resigned days before the ceremony after growing criticism of his past bullying of people with apparent disabilities, such as Down syndrome. On 16 July, a week before the opening ceremony, TOCOG announced their support of Oyamada as a composer and vowed not to change his selection for the ceremonies, but growing criticism forced him to announce his resignation on 19 July. The opening ceremony music included arrangements of video game soundtracks originating in Japan; however, this included music from the Dragon Quest series, composed by Koichi Sugiyama whom The Daily Beast described as "notoriously homophobic and ultranationalist", leading to further criticism of the Organizing Committee.
Officials reported that by early June 2021, about 10,000 of the 80,000 registered volunteers had quit. "There's no doubt that one of the reasons is concern over coronavirus infections," the chief executive of the Organizing Committee said, also stating he did not believe this would impact the operation of the Games. On 23 July, hundreds of anti-Olympic protestors gathered outside the Japan National Stadium before the opening ceremony. Security guards blocked reporters from leaving the stadium to interview protestors.
Writing for The Conversation (website), Olympic scholar MacIntosh Ross raised concerns about the relationship between the IOC and WHO, suggesting the organizations showed a lack of concern for the health of Japanese citizens and Olympians. As Ross explained, "when the IOC and WHO support a global mega-event held during a pandemic, it's difficult to believe that the well-being of the host nation remains a priority."
A number of controversies arose during the Games, most notably the attempted repatriation on 1 August of Belarusian sprinter Krystsina Tsimanouskaya, allegedly for her criticism of the national sports authorities and team management. Refusing to return to Belarus, over fears for her safety, Tsimanouskaya sought assistance from the IOC and traveled to Warsaw, Poland, on 4 August after being granted a humanitarian visa by Tokyo's Polish Embassy.
Near the end of the Olympics, it was reported that Australian athletes had damaged the village rooms before departure, leaving a pool of vomit on the floor, damaged beds and a hole in the wall. Australian rugby Olympians also reportedly became drunk on the flight to Sydney, leaving vomit in the plane bathroom and receiving complaints from other passengers. Team Australia chief Ian Chesterman played down the incidents, and said that the Olympians would not be punished.
The Olympic Games Tokyo 2020 reached a global broadcast audience of 3.05 billion people, according to independent research conducted on behalf of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Official coverage on Olympic broadcast partners' digital platforms alone generated 28 billion video views in total – representing a 139 per cent increase compared with the Olympic Games Rio 2016 and underlining the changing media landscape and Tokyo 2020's designation as the first streaming Games and the most watched Olympic Games ever on digital platforms.
Sony and Panasonic partnered with NHK to develop broadcasting standards for 8K resolution television, with a goal to release 8K television sets in time for the 2020 Summer Olympics. In early 2019, Italian broadcaster RAI announced its intention to deploy 8K broadcasting for the Games. NHK broadcast the opening and closing ceremonies, and coverage of selected events in 8K. Telecom company NTT Docomo signed a deal with Finland's Nokia to provide 5G-ready baseband networks in Japan in time for the Games.
The Tokyo Olympics were broadcast in the United States by NBCUniversal networks, as part of a US$4.38 billion agreement that began at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. The United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee asserted that a "right of abatement" clause in the contract was triggered by the delay of the Games to 2021, requiring the IOC to "negotiate in good faith an equitable reduction in the applicable broadcast rights payments" by NBC, which remains one of IOC's biggest revenue streams. According to NBCUniversal CEO Jeff Shell, the Tokyo games could be the most profitable Olympics in NBC's history. The Tokyo games were NBC's first Olympics broadcast under current president Susan Rosner Rovner.
In Europe, this was the first Summer Olympics under the IOC's exclusive pan-European rights deal with Eurosport, which began at the 2018 Winter Olympics and is contracted to run through 2024. The rights for the 2020 Summer Olympics covered almost all of Europe; a pre-existing deal with a marketer excludes Russia. Eurosport planned to sub-license coverage to free-to-air networks in each territory, and other channels owned by Discovery, Inc. subsidiaries. In the United Kingdom, these were set to be the last Games with rights owned primarily by the BBC, although as a condition of a sub-licensing agreement due to carry into the 2022 and 2024 Games, Eurosport holds exclusive pay television rights. In France, these were the last Games whose rights are primarily owned by France Télévisions. Eurosport debuted as pay television rightsholder, after Canal+ elected to sell its pay television rights as a cost-saving measure.
In Canada, the 2020 Games were shown on CBC/Radio-Canada platforms, Sportsnet, TSN and TLN. In Australia, they were aired by Seven Network. In the Indian subcontinent, they were aired by Sony Pictures Networks India (SPN).
- 2020 Summer Paralympics
- Olympic Games celebrated in Japan
- The new emblem, created by Asao Tokolo, was introduced at the closing ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Made by checkboards, it expresses a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan. Previously, the original logo, made by Kenjirō Sano, was scrapped after his design was plagiarizing a Belgian theatre company's logo.
- Only an English motto was used during the Games. There was no Japanese equivalent of the motto adopted.
- Overseas spectators were first banned in March 2021, then followed by residents of Japan in July of that year to avoid any risk of a superspreading event.
- Tokyo was set to host the 1940 Summer Olympics but pulled out in 1938 due to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
- The 1916 Summer Olympics was called off due to World War I, while the 1940 and 1944 Summer Olympics were also called off due to World War II.
- based on the average USD/JPY 2021 exchange rate.
- The remainder of the Olympic test events resumed on 11 March 2021 and the last event took place on 5 May 2021.
- Neutral athletes from Russia competed under the flag of the Russian Olympic Committee.
- "'United by Emotion' to be the Tokyo 2020 Games Motto". Tokyo2020.org. Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games. 17 February 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020.
- "Olympics: Tokyo Games cost totals 1.42 tril. yen, twice bid figure". Kyodo News. 21 June 2022. Archived from the original on 21 June 2022.
A total of 11,420 athletes took part in the Tokyo Olympics and a record-high 4,403 at the Paralympics, the organizers said.
- "Olympics 2020: Tokyo wins race to host Games". BBC Sport. 7 September 2013. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
- "Olympics history: Have the Games been postponed before?". Los Angeles Times. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- Multiple sources:
- McDonald, Scott (25 March 2020). "The Reason why Olympics in 2021 will still be called the 2020 Olympic Games". newsweek.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- Denyer, Simon; Maese, Rick (20 March 2021). "Tokyo Olympics organizers ban spectators from outside Japan in pandemic-control measure". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Ingle, Sean; McCurry, Justin (8 July 2021). "Spectators banned from most Olympic events as Covid emergency declared". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 July 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- Dooley, Ben (8 July 2021). "'Spectators Will Be Barred at Tokyo Olympics Amid New Covid Emergency". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 July 2021.
- Cervantes, Alberto (23 July 2021). "The Tokyo Olympics' Staggering Price Tag and Where It Stands in History". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 13 November 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
- Brockell, Gillian (24 March 2020). "'This isn't the first time Olympics in Japan have been disrupted". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
- "An Olympics like no other, Tokyo perseveres to host Games". Usatoday.com. 20 July 2021. Archived from the original on 20 February 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
- Kremers, Daniel (2020). "Outdoor sports in the periphery: Far from the compact games". In Barbara Holthus; Isaac Gagné; Wolfram Manzenreiter; Franz Waldenberger (eds.). Japan Through the Lens of the Tokyo Olympics. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781003033905. ISBN 978-1-003-03390-5.
- Ostlere, Lawrence (26 July 2021). "Flora Duffy wins Bermuda's first Olympic gold as GB's Georgia Taylor-Brown takes silver". The Independent. Archived from the original on 26 July 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- Chappell, Bill (26 July 2021). "The Philippines Wins Its First Olympic Gold After Nearly 100 Years Of Trying". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 25 April 2022. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- Oliver, Brian (31 July 2021). "Weightlifter Meso wins Qatar's first ever Olympic gold medal". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 31 July 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
- Oyeleke, Sodiq (5 August 2021). "Hugues Zango wins Burkina Faso's first-ever Olympic medal". The Punch. Archived from the original on 5 August 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
- Mercer, Bryan (29 July 2021). "San Marino wins first Olympic medal in nation's history". www.nbcolympics.com. Archived from the original on 15 December 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
- Ellingworth, James (27 July 2021). "Weightlifter Guryeva wins Turkmenistan's 1st Olympic medal". APNews. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
- "Olympic Host City Election | From Candidate to Host City". International Olympic Committee. 27 April 2021. Archived from the original on 8 August 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
- Wilson, Stephen (8 September 2013). "Results of the IOC vote to host the 2020 Summer Olympics". Austin American-Statesman. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Swift, Rocky (23 January 2020). "Coronavirus spotlights Japan contagion risks as Olympics loom". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- McCurry, Justin (1 February 2020). "Tokyo 2020 organisers fight false rumours Olympics cancelled over coronavirus crisis". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- "Frequently Asked Questions about the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020 - Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. 2 June 2021. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
- García-Hodges, Ahiza; Talmazan, Yuliya; Yamamoto, Arata (24 March 2020). "Tokyo 2020 Olympics postponed over coronavirus concerns". NBCNews.com. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- Silvester, Andy (18 February 2020). "Exclusive: Bailey calls for London to host Olympics if coronavirus forces Tokyo move". City A.M. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- Slodkowski, Antoni (21 February 2020). "Tokyo Governor Criticizes Suggestion That London Could Host 2020 Olympics". The New York Times. Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020.
- Fong, Philip (26 January 2021). "Florida offers to host Olympics if Tokyo backs out: state official". Japan Today. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
- Haring, Bruce (22 May 2021). "Tokyo Olympics Will Be Held Even If Japan Emergency Continues, IOC Official Insists". Deadline. Archived from the original on 23 May 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
- "東京五輪中に緊急事態宣言が必要になる可能性も…厚労省の専門家組織会合で試算結果＜新型コロナ＞：東京新聞 TOKYO Web" [There is a possibility that a state of emergency may be required during the Tokyo Olympics ... Estimated results at an expert organization meeting of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare]. 東京新聞 TOKYO Web (in Japanese). 16 June 2021. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
- 共同通信 (16 June 2021). "五輪観客入れると感染者1万人増も ｜ 共同通信" [The number of infected people will increase by 10,000 when the Olympic spectators are included]. 共同通信 [Kyodo news] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 16 June 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
- "FIBA Women's Olympic Qualifying Tournament relocated to Belgrade, Serbia". fiba.basketball. FIBA. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- "Olympic boxing qualifiers moved to Jordan". The Japan Times. Reuters. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
- "2020 AFC Women's Olympic Qualifying Tournament to be hosted in Sydney, Australia". matildas.com.au. Football Federation Australia. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- ZK Goh (16 March 2020). "Boxing Road to Tokyo European qualifier in London suspended". olympics.com. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Hope, Nick (1 December 2020). "European Olympic boxing qualification event returning to London in April". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 4 December 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- "European Qualifying Event". boxing.athlete365.org. 7 May 2021. Archived from the original on 2 August 2021. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
- "Olympics postponed; to be held latest by 2021 summer, says Japanese PM". 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 6 April 2022. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
- Sharma, Aryan (23 March 2020). "Tokyo Olympics 2020: Coronavirus Doping Tests For Players – A Big Question Mark". essentiallysports.com. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- "Drug testing to resume in China after coronavirus outbreak". Reuters. 21 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- Trotter, Anthony; Winsor, Morgan (2 March 2020). "No plans to cancel or postpone Tokyo 2020 Olympics amid coronavirus outbreak, organizers say". abcnews.go.com. ABC News. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- "Canada, Australia withdraw from Tokyo 2020 as organizers ponder postponement". CNBC. Reuters. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Olympic doubts grow as Canada withdraws athletes". BBC News. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- Brennan, Christine (23 March 2020). "IOC member says 2020 Tokyo Olympics will be postponed due to coronavirus pandemic". USA Today. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- "Joint Statement from the International Olympic Committee and the Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee". olympic.org. IOC. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "IOC, IPC, Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee and Tokyo Metropolitan Government Announce New Dates for the Olympic and Paralympic Games Tokyo 2020". olympic.org. IOC. 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- Pavitt, Michael (20 March 2020). "Rescheduled Tokyo 2020 Olympics to open on July 23 in 2021". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 18 February 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- Binner, Andrew (30 March 2020). "New Tokyo 2020 Olympic Dates Will Be 23 July to 8 August 2021". olympicchannel.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Rich, Motoko; Keh, Andrew (28 April 2020). "Summer Olympics in 2021? 'Exceedingly Difficult' Without a Coronavirus Vaccine". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Next Olympics to be 'scrapped' if 2021 date is missed according to Tokyo 2020 president". RTÉ.ie. 28 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 May 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- Ingle, Sean (29 April 2020). "Tokyo Olympics in 2021 at risk of cancellation admits Japan's PM". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 4 May 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
- Roan, Dan (20 May 2020). "IOC's Thomas Bach accepts Tokyo Olympics would have to be cancelled if not held in 2021". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 26 August 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
- Shimizu, Kazuki; Sridhar, Devi; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Shibuya, Kenji (14 April 2021). "Reconsider this summer's Olympic and Paralympic games". BMJ. 373: n962. doi:10.1136/bmj.n962. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 33853866. S2CID 233224002. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- Murphy, Chris (21 January 2021). "Japan Reportedly 'Privately Concludes' to Cancel the 2021 Olympic Games Due to the Coronavirus". Vulture. Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
- Yamamoto, Arata; Suliman, Adela (22 January 2021). "Japan denies as 'categorically untrue' report Tokyo Olympics could be cancelled". NBC News. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
- Reuters Staff (19 February 2021). "Japan PM: won G7 unanimous support for holding Olympics this summer". Reuters. Archived from the original on 20 February 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
|author=has generic name (help)
- "Tokyo Olympic Games could still be cancelled due to coronavirus, senior Japanese government official says". ABC.net.au. 15 April 2021. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
- Essig, Blake; Jozuka, Emiko; Westcott, Ben (15 April 2021). "With 100 days until the Tokyo Olympics, Japan has vaccinated less than 1% of its population. That's a problem". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 5 November 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
- "What pandemic? Doctors asked to volunteer at Tokyo Olympics". The Asahi Shimbun. 4 May 2021. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- McCurry, Justin (3 May 2021). "Japan nurses voice anger at call to volunteer for Tokyo Olympics amid Covid crisis". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- Rich, Motoko (2 May 2021). "How Can the Olympics Protect 78,000 Volunteers From the Coronavirus?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- "9 governors say Tokyo Games should be canceled, delayed depending on circumstances: poll". Mainichi Daily News. 4 May 2021. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- Inoue, Makiko (18 May 2021). "A new poll in Japan finds 83 percent don't want the Olympics this summer". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
- "Japanese Medical Group Calls for Cancellation of Tokyo Olympics | Voice of America - English". voanews.com. 18 May 2021. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- "70% of Japanese want Tokyo Games cancelled or delayed - poll". Reuters. Reuters. 12 April 2021. Archived from the original on 17 May 2021. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
- Kajimoto, Tetsushi (20 May 2021). "Most Japan firms say Olympics should be cancelled or postponed, poll shows". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
- "Tokyo Olympics: Widespread protests as COVID wave sweeps Japan". NewsComAu. 15 May 2021. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- 赤川次郎 (6 June 2021). "（声）五輪中止、それしか道はない：朝日新聞デジタル" [The Olympics are canceled, that's the only way: Asahi Shimbun Digital]. 朝日新聞デジタル (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- "赤川次郎氏「五輪中止を決断するしか道はない」朝日新聞の投稿欄に掲載 - スポニチ Sponichi Annex 社会" [Jiro Akagawa "There is no choice but to decide to cancel the Olympics" posted in the post section of the Asahi Shimbun --Sponichi]. スポニチ Sponichi Annex (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- 毎日新聞 (3 June 2021). "中村文則の書斎のつぶやき：五輪利権のために" [Fuminori Nakamura's study tweet: "For Olympic rights"]. 毎日新聞 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- McCurry, Justin (26 May 2021). "Tokyo Olympics: Asahi Shimbun newspaper says Japan Games must be cancelled". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 July 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- Lewis, Leo; Inagaki, Kana (4 June 2021). "Olympics sponsors call for Tokyo Games delay to allow more spectators". The Financial Times. Tokyo. Archived from the original on 5 June 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
- Brzeski, Patrick (19 July 2021). "Toyota Cancels Tokyo Olympics TV Ads in Japan, CEO Won't Attend Opening Ceremony". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 20 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
- Gale, Alastair (13 July 2021). "Tokyo Olympics Sponsors Spent Big Bucks but Their Plans Are Falling Flat". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 20 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
- "東京五輪・パラ １年延期の経済損失 6400億円余 専門家試算" [Tokyo Olympics/Paralympics 1-year postponement, economic loss over 640 billion yen experts estimate]. nhk.or.jp (in Japanese). NHK. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "Tokyo Games cancellation likely to cost Japan $17 bil". Kyodo News. 25 May 2021. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- Cohn, Carolyn; Hussain, Noor Zainab (24 March 2020). "Olympics delay, not cancellation, provides reprieve for insurers". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
- Croucher, Martin (21 July 2021). "Munich Re Losses Soar to €1.5B As Virus Bites Sector". Law360. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
- Minelle, B. (20 March 2021). "Tokyo 2021: Japan bans foreign fans from Olympic games due to COVID-19 risks". Sky News. Archived from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Cohn, Carolyn; Hussain, Noor Zainab (13 July 2021). "UPDATE 1-Local Olympics organisers face uninsured loss from spectator ban-sources". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
- Gile, Maggie (2 July 2021). "Japan could lose $800M in Olympic ticket sales if games have no spectators". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 27 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
- "Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee publishes final balanced budget". International Olympic Committee. 21 June 2022. Archived from the original on 23 June 2022. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
- Mackay, Duncan (21 June 2022). "Final bill for Tokyo 2020 twice as much as when awarded Olympics, but less than forecast after Games". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 22 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
- "世論調査 菅内閣「支持」35%...発足以来"最低" 五輪開催「良かった」64%" [A public opinion poll showed 35% support for the Suga Cabinet, the lowest since its inauguration. 64% said they were glad the Olympics were held.]. Yahoo! Japan News. 9 August 2021. Archived from the original on 9 August 2021.
- Kubota, Masaki (29 July 2021). "「メダルラッシュで日本の世論はコロッと変わる」という予言が的中した理由" [The reason why the prediction that "Japanese public opinion will change drastically with the medal rush" was correct]. Diamond Online. Archived from the original on 29 July 2021.
- "Japan: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard With Vaccination Data". covid19.who.int. World Health Organization. 6 September 2021. Archived from the original on 3 September 2021. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- Armstrong, Jim (24 January 2014). "Mori heads Tokyo 2020 organizing committee". Yahoo Sports. AP. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Tokyo Olympics chief Mori to quit over "sexist" remarks". Kyodo News. 11 February 2021. Archived from the original on 11 February 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- DeSantis, Rachel (12 February 2021). "Tokyo Olympics Chief Resigns amid Uproar Over Sexist Comments". People.com. Archived from the original on 12 February 2021. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "Female ex-Olympic athlete Hashimoto takes over as Tokyo Games chief". english.kyodonews.net. Kyodo News. 18 February 2021. Archived from the original on 18 February 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
- on YouTube
- "羽田・成田発着を拡大、五輪へインフラ整備急ぐ" [Expand departures and arrivals at Haneda and Narita, and hurry to improve infrastructure for the Olympics]. 日本経済新聞 [Nihon Keizai Shimbun] (in Japanese). 10 September 2013. Archived from the original on 11 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "五輪で東京に1000万人 過密都市ゆえの課題多く" [10 million people in Tokyo at the Olympics Many challenges due to overcrowded city]. 日本経済新聞 [Nihon Keizai Shimbun] (in Japanese). 10 September 2013. Archived from the original on 11 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "ILO, Tokyo 2020 sign agreement to promote decent work in run-up to the Games". International Labour Organization (Press release). 26 April 2018. Archived from the original on 28 July 2021. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
- "Tokyo 2020: Olympics will be 'simplified' in 2021". BBC Sport. 10 June 2020. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
- Carp, Sam (28 September 2020). "Tokyo 2020 organisers agree on 52 measures for simplified Games". SportsPro. Archived from the original on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
- Himmer, Alastair (6 February 2012). "Rugby-Tokyo stadium set for billion dollar facelift". Reuters. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Wainwright, Oliver (6 November 2014). "Zaha Hadid's Tokyo Olympic stadium slammed as a 'monumental mistake' and a 'disgrace to future generations'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "新国立、整備費2500億円 従来デザイン維持で決着" [New National, maintenance cost 250 billion yen, settled by maintaining the conventional design]. Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 24 June 2015. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- "国立競技場将来構想有識者会議" [National Stadium Future Vision Experts Meeting]. 日本スポーツ振興センター. Japan Sport Council. 7 July 2015. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "Government drops plan to build retractable roof on Olympic stadium as costs soar". The Japan Times. Kyodo. 29 July 2015. ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "Tokyo Olympic stadium gets new, cheaper design". BBC News Asia. 22 December 2015. Archived from the original on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "All eyes on Tokyo's Olympic Stadium with 100 days to go". World Athletics. 14 April 2021. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- Friend, Nick (9 October 2018). "Tokyo 2020 costs skyrocket to US$25 billion". SportsPro Media. Archived from the original on 30 October 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
- "Tokyo 2020 candidature file – section 8 – Sports and Venues" (PDF). Tokyo 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- Takahashi, Ryusei (17 October 2019). "IOC planning to move Tokyo Olympic marathon north to Sapporo in bid to avoid heat". The Japan Times. ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- Denyer, Simon; Kashiwagi, Akiko (1 November 2019). "Cool runnings: After heated dispute, Tokyo agrees to shift Olympic marathons to more clement climes". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- Diamond, James (25 December 2018). "Japanese Government announce ban on drones near venues during Tokyo 2020". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- "Japan Bolsters Olympic and Paralympic Security amid Heightened Terrorism Concerns". Nippon.com. 26 December 2019. Archived from the original on 21 June 2022. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
- ul-Khaliq, Riyaz (12 July 2021). "Japan holds anti-terror drill as Tokyo Olympics near". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
- "More than 200,000 Applications Received for Tokyo 2020 Volunteer program". Tokyo2020.org. TOCOG. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Tokyo 2020: 180,000 apply to be volunteers". paralympic.org. IPC. 9 January 2019. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019.
- "Volunteer names unveiled for Tokyo 2020". IOC. 30 January 2019. Archived from the original on 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- Kobayashi, Chie; Wang, Selina; Berlinger, Joshua (3 June 2021). "About 10,000 Tokyo Olympic volunteers have quit with Games closing in". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- Murata, Atsushi (10 July 2021). "An Olympics without fans? Tokyo volunteers suddenly have no roles". Nikkei News. Archived from the original on 16 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- "How the Olympics will look different this year". CTVNews. 14 July 2021. Archived from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
- Palmer, Dan (1 February 2017). "Tokyo 2020 urge public to help create recycled medals". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- "Project to recycle old mobile phones for Olympic medals gets off to slow start". The Japan Times. Jiji, Kyodo. 2 January 2018. ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
- Etchells, Daniel (22 December 2017). "Tokyo 2020 launches Olympic and Paralympic medal design competition". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- "Japan struggles for silver for Tokyo 2020 medals". Inside the Games. 9 May 2018. Archived from the original on 5 January 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- Pavitt, Michael (25 November 2018). "Bach donates to project recycling metals for Tokyo 2020 medals". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- "Tokyo 2020 Olympic medal design unveiled". Tokyo2020.org. TOCOG. 24 July 2019. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
- "Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games Medal Design". Tokyo2020.org. TOCOG. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
- Hitti, Natashah (25 July 2019). "Olympic committee unveils 2020 medals made from recycled smartphones". Dezeen. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "Tokyo 2020 unveils details of Greek torch relay events". Olympic.org. IOC. 11 November 2019. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- "With the concept of 'Hope Lights Our Way,' a 121-day journey begins in Fukushima". Tokyo2020.org. TOCOG. 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- "International torch relays banned". BBC Sport. 27 March 2009. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- "Olympic flame to be exhibited in Fukushima, Tokyo". NHK News. 28 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.[permanent dead link]
- "Tokyo 2020 releases one-year-to-go countdown video starring swimmer Ikee". Inside the Games. 23 July 2020. Archived from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
- "Olympics: Torch relay schedule intact for next year - Kyodo". Reuters. 20 August 2020. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- Mather, Victor (23 July 2021). "Naomi Osaka lights the cauldron". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
- Steen, Emma. "The Tokyo 2020 Olympic Cauldron is now on display in Ariake". Time Out Tokyo. Archived from the original on 5 September 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
- "Athletes warned against excessive celebrations at Tokyo 2020". Inside the Games. 5 February 2021. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- "Tokyo 2020 organisers publish first set of rules to ensure Games can go ahead". Inside the Games. 3 February 2021. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- Simon Denyer (20 March 2021). "Tokyo Olympics organizers ban spectators from outside Japan in pandemic-control measure". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Sparrow, Annie K.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Harrison, Robert J.; Osterholm, Michael T. (25 May 2021). "Protecting Olympic Participants from Covid-19 — The Urgent Need for a Risk-Management Approach". New England Journal of Medicine. 385 (1): e2. doi:10.1056/NEJMp2108567. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 34033274. S2CID 235201472.
- "Tokyo 2020 Playbooks Athlete365". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
- Edwards, Kate. "COVID vaccines won't be compulsory for the Tokyo Olympics. But if offered, here's what athletes need to know". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 22 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- "IOC says vaccine offer open to countries who have approved Chinese vaccines". Inside the Games. 12 March 2021. Archived from the original on 17 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- "IOC welcomes Pfizer and BioNTech's donation of vaccines to teams heading for the Olympic and Paralympic Games Tokyo 2020 - Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. 6 May 2021. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- "五輪選手の「バブル」は効果なし？ 国内から30万人が出入り、ワクチン用意は2万人分：東京新聞 TOKYO Web" [Is the "bubble" of the Olympic athletes ineffective? 300,000 people come and go from Japan, vaccine preparation is for 20,000 people]. 東京新聞 TOKYO Web (in Japanese). 4 June 2021. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- Wade, Stephen (26 April 2021). "Tokyo Olympics rules: Daily testing for athletes, no 14-day quarantine but a 'bubble' in the Olympic Village". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- "Tokyo cancels public viewing sites, some to be vaccination centres". Reuters. 19 June 2021. Archived from the original on 26 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- Gallagher, Chris; Slodkowski, Antoni; Leussink, Daniel (23 June 2021). "Up to 10,000 fans allowed at Tokyo 2020 venues, despite warnings". Reuters. Archived from the original on 26 June 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
- "Tokyo 2020 organisers warn of no-fan Olympics as COVID cases rise". Aljazeera.com. 2 July 2021. Archived from the original on 2 July 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
- "Olympics: from June 1 to July 22, Jill Biden lands in Tokyo". Asia Nikkei. 22 July 2021. Archived from the original on 5 July 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
- Houston, Michael (8 July 2021). "Tokyo to be under state of emergency for duration of Olympics". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 8 July 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Tokyo Olympics: Spectators largely barred as Covid emergency declared". BBC News Asia. 8 July 2021. Archived from the original on 8 July 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- Hisatoshi, Kabata (25 May 2021). "Limiting people's movement key to holding 'safe' Olympics: study". The Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
- "五輪「人の流れ抑制が鍵」 入国選手ら、影響限定的か―東大准教授ら試算：時事ドットコム" [Olympics "Suppressing the flow of people is the key" Immigration players, impact limited – Estimated by Associate Professor of the University of Tokyo]. 時事ドットコム Jiji Press (in Japanese). 31 May 2021. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
- "Fans barred from all Olympic events in Tokyo as COVID-19 fears grow". Inside the Games. 8 July 2021. Archived from the original on 8 July 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Japan's Fukushima, in reversal, bars spectators from Olympic events". Reuters. 10 July 2021. Archived from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
- NEWS, KYODO. "IOC's Bach asked Japan PM to allow fans at Olympics if COVID state improves". Kyodo News+. Archived from the original on 19 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
- "Noisy delegations make up for absent spectators at Games". Reuters. 27 July 2021. Archived from the original on 10 August 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
- "Tokyo Paralympics likely to be held with no spectators". The Japan Times. 12 August 2021. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
- Shimizu, Ayano (9 July 2021). "Tokyo Olympics to be held mostly without spectators due to pandemic". Kyodo News. Archived from the original on 8 July 2021. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- NEWS, KYODO. "Japan expands COVID state of emergency to Osaka, 3 areas near Tokyo". Kyodo News+. Archived from the original on 9 August 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
- "Tokyo 2020 Announces Outline of Olympic Games Ticket Prices". Tokyo2020.org. TOCOG. 20 July 2018. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- "Tickets for Olympic Games / Tokyo Olympic Japan 2020". Archived from the original on 31 August 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- "How To Buy Tokyo Olympic Tickets". TrulyTokyo. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Tokyo 2020: Olympic Games tickets". Tokyo2020.org. TOCOG. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- "Tokyo 2020 unveils events program for Nippon Festival in 2021". Inside the Games. 10 March 2021. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
- "Thousands of imaginary creatures to be released in virtual Olympic Stadium". Inside the Games. 14 July 2021. Archived from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
- "Nippon Festival cancelled following Tokyo 2020 postponement". Inside the Games. 20 April 2020. Archived from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
- "Kabuki x Opera details for Tokyo 2020 Nippon Festival announced". Inside the Games. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
- "Details of Tokyo 2020 Nippon festival announced". Inside the Games. 10 December 2019. Archived from the original on 18 July 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
- "Tokyo 2020 release updated calendar for Nippon Festival". Inside the Games. 10 February 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
- "Grand Sumo Tournament Rooting for the Tokyo 2020 Games". Tokyo2020.org. TOCOG. 7 February 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- Wade, Stephen (4 February 2020). "Sumo wrestling coming – sort of – to the Tokyo Olympics". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
- Ingle, Sean (23 July 2021). "Naomi Osaka provides spark at subdued opening of Tokyo Olympics". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 July 2021. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
- "IOC sends extremely strong message that gender balance is a reality at the Olympic Games". Olympic News. 4 March 2020. Archived from the original on 25 July 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- "IOC Session approves Olympic Agenda 2020+5 as the strategic roadmap to 2025". Olympic News. 12 March 2021. Archived from the original on 8 June 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- "IOC session approves Olympic Agenda 2020+5". IBSF. 12 March 2021. Archived from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
- Spungin, Tal (23 July 2021). "Olympics: Moment of silence for Munich massacre victims for first time". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
- "3-on-3 basketball officially added to Tokyo Olympics". CBC Sports. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Tokyo 2020: Mixed-gender events added to Olympic Games". BBC Sport. 9 June 2017. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Why Tokyo 2020 will be the biggest: The complete list of sports and medals on offer". Olympics.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
- Segal, David (31 August 2013). "Olympic Wheel of Fortune". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
- "IOC Executive Board recommends 25 core sports for 2020 Games - Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. 13 July 2021. Archived from the original on 18 July 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
- "Wrestling fighting for Olympic future after dropped from core sports". Inside the Games. 12 February 2013. Archived from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
- Hamilton, Tracee (8 September 2013). "Wrestling, IOC make right moves in getting sport back on 2020 Olympics program". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- Longman, Jeré (12 February 2013). "Olympics Moves to Drop Wrestling in 2020". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "Wrestling to be dropped from 2020 Olympic Games". BBC Sport. 12 February 2013. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "Baseball/softball, squash and wrestling make cut for IOC Session vote in Buenos Aires". Olympic.org. IOC. 29 May 2013. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013.
- "Wrestling, baseball/softball and squash shortlisted by IOC for 2020 as five fail to make cut". 29 May 2013. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- "Wrestling Added to Olympic Program for 2020 and 2024 Games". Australian Leisure Management. 9 September 2013. Archived from the original on 28 August 2020.
- "Big changes to Olympic sports program on way after Agenda 2020 Summit". Inside the Games. 19 July 2014. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
- "Olympic Agenda 2020 Recommendations" (PDF). IOC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Baseball, softball among 8 sports proposed for 2020 Games". ESPN.com. 22 June 2015. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- "Olympics: Skateboarding & surfing among possible Tokyo 2020 sports". BBC Sport. 28 September 2015. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "IOC approves five new sports for Olympic Games Tokyo 2020". Olympic.org. IOC. 3 August 2016. Archived from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
- "You're in! Baseball/softball, 4 other sports make Tokyo cut". USA Today. 3 August 2016. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "Tokyo 2020 Test Events". Tokyo2020.org. TOCOG. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- "Tokyo 2020: Test event schedule announced". paralympic.org. IPC. 2 October 2018. Archived from the original on 2 December 2018.
- "Tokyo 2020 unveils its Olympic test event schedule". IOC. 30 January 2019. Archived from the original on 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Tokyo 2020 Test Events". Tokyo 2020. TOCOG. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Mackay, Duncan (27 March 2019). "IOC approve name change to North Macedonia National Olympic Committee". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2020.