Archery at the Summer Olympics

Archery at the Summer Olympics
Archery pictogram.svg
IOC Discipline CodeARC
Governing bodyWA
Events5 (men: 2; women: 2; mixed: 1)
Games
  • 1924
  • 1928
  • 1932
  • 1936
  • 1948
  • 1952

Archery had its debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics and has been contested in 16 Olympiads. Eighty-four nations have competed in the Olympic archery events, with France appearing the most often at 31 times. The most noticeable trend has been the excellence of South Korean archers, who have won 27 out of 39 gold medals in events since 1984. It is governed by the World Archery Federation (WA; formerly FITA). Recurve archery is the only discipline of archery featured at the Olympic Games. Archery is also an event at the Summer Paralympics.

Summary

Key

  Archery events not held
  Olympic Games not held

Games Year Events Best Nation
1
2 1900 7  France
3 1904 6  United States
4 1908 3  Great Britain
5
6
7 1920 10  Belgium
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Games Year Events Best Nation
17
18
19
20 1972 2  United States
21 1976 2  United States
22 1980 2  Soviet Union
23 1984 2  United States
24 1988 4  South Korea
25 1992 4  South Korea
26 1996 4  South Korea
27 2000 4  South Korea
28 2004 4  South Korea
29 2008 4  South Korea
30 2012 4  South Korea
31 2016 4  South Korea
32 2020 5  South Korea

History

The second Olympic games, Paris 1900, saw the first appearance of archery. Seven disciplines in varying distances were contested. At the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, six archery events were contested, of which three were men's and three were women's competitions. Team archery was introduced, as was women's archery. At the 1908 Summer Olympics, three archery events were held. Archery was not featured at the 1912 Summer Olympics but reappeared in the 1920 Summer Olympics.

Between 1920 and 1972, archery was not contested at the Olympic games. The archery competition featured at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich consisted of a double FITA Round (from 2014 known as a '1440 Round') competition with two events: men's individual and women's individual. This form of archery competition was held until the 1988 Summer Olympics, when team competition was added and the Grand FITA Round format was used. Starting at the 1992 Summer Olympics, the Olympic Round with head-to-head matches was adopted and has been used ever since.

In 1984 at Los Angeles, Neroli Fairhall of New Zealand was the first paraplegic competitor in the Olympic Games.[1]

Medal tables

Archery competitions in 1900, 1904, 1908, and 1920 years preceded the modern, standardized archery competition under the rules of the World Archery Federation.[2] They were contested by three nations at most in any given year, and were dominated by home nations in both the number of participants and number of medals won. The nations that competed during that period were France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and the United States. In some events in Antwerp (1920) bronze medals were not awarded as only two nations competed.[3][4]

1972 marked the beginning of the modern archery competition at the Olympic Games. The events began to use standardized forms and many nations competed.[2]

This table includes archery competitions in 1900, 1904, 1908, and 1920 in addition to the ones from 1972 on.[5]

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 South Korea279743
2 United States1410933
3 Belgium117321
4 France711725
5 Italy2349
6 Great Britain2259
7 China1629
8 Soviet Union1337
9 Finland1124
 Ukraine1124
11 Netherlands1113
12 Australia1023
13 Spain1001
 Turkey1001
15 Japan0347
16 Chinese Taipei0224
 Germany0224
18 ROC0202
 Sweden0202
20 Mexico0123
21 Poland0112
 Russia0112
23 Indonesia0101
24 Unified Team0022
Totals (24 entries)716961201

Qualification

Qualification spots in archery are allotted to National Olympic Committees rather than to individual athletes. There is no minimum age for an Olympic archer. There are two ways an NOC may earn qualification spots: by team or by individual. For each gender, an NOC that earns a team qualification spot may send three archers to compete in that team event; each archer also competes in the individual competition. NOCs that earn individual qualification spots are limited to a single entry in the individual event.

For each gender, there are 12 team qualification spots: the host nation, the top 8 teams at the World Archery Championships, and the top 3 teams at the Final World Team Qualification Tournament.[6]

In addition to the 36 entries awarded through team qualification, an additional 28 individual qualification spots are available for each gender, bringing the total number of competitors in each individual event to 64.

Qualification for the mixed team event is done through the ranking round at the Olympics.

2012

For 2012, the qualification rules were adjusted slightly. The host nation continued to receive three spots, as did the top eight teams at the World Championship. However, only 8 further individuals qualified through the individual placement at the World Championship. The continental tournaments received unbalanced allocations, with Africa and Oceania receiving only two qualification spots to the other continents' three. The Tripartite Commission retained its three selections. The remaining 13 spots were decided by Final Qualification Tournaments. Three additional team spots (9 individual spots) were allocated through the Final Qualification team event, and the last 4 spots through the Final Qualification individual tournament. If any of the NOCs qualifying through Final Qualification had already earned an individual spot, one more spot as added to the individual Final Qualification quota.[7]

2016

Africa received 3 qualification spots in the continental tournaments, leaving Oceania as the only continent to receive 2 spots rather than 3.

2020

For the 2020 Olympics (which was postponed to 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic),[8] the five Continental Games were added to the qualification pathway. The winning NOC in the mixed team event at each of the five receives one allocation spot per gender; there is also one quota spot per gender for the individual event winners at the Asian, European, and Pan American Games. The World Championship allocation was reduced to 4 per gender and the Tripartite Commission allocation was reduced to 2 per gender. The European continental tournament received an additional spot (up to 4) at the expense of Oceania (down to 1) and Africa (down to 2). The base allocation for the final individual qualification tournament was reduced to only 1 per gender, though this tournament also reallocates unused quota spots.

Competition

From 1988 through 2016, Olympic archery consisted of four medal events: men's individual, women's individual, men's team, and women's team. The mixed team event is being added in 2020. In all five events, the distance from the archer to the target is 70 meters.

Individual

In the individual competitions, 64 archers compete. The competition begins with the ranking round. Each archer shoots 72 arrows (in six ends, or groups, of 12 arrows). They are then ranked by score to determine their seeding for the single-elimination bracket. After this, final rankings for each archer are determined by the archer's score in the round in which the archer was defeated, with the archers defeated in the first round being ranked 33rd through 64th.

Pre-2008

The first elimination round pits the first ranked archer against the sixty-fourth, the second against the sixty-third, and so on. In this match as well as the second and third, the archers shoot simultaneously 18 arrows in ends of 3 arrows. The archer with the higher score after 18 arrows moves on to the next round while the loser is eliminated.

After three such rounds, there are 8 archers remaining. The remaining three rounds (quarterfinals, semifinals, and medal matches) are referred to as the finals rounds. They consist of each archer shooting 12 arrows, again in ends of 3 arrows. The two archers in the match alternate by arrow instead of shooting their arrows simultaneously as in the first three rounds. The losers of the quarterfinals are eliminated, while the losers of the semifinals play each other to determine the bronze medal and fourth place. The two archers who are undefeated through the semifinals face each other in the gold medal match, in which the winner takes the gold medal while the loser receives the silver medal.

2008 changes

All matches in 2008 were in the previous finals round format, using 12 arrow matches. Archers alternated shooting by arrow.

2012 changes

The individual match system was completely overhauled for the 2012 Olympics, though the single elimination with bronze medal match format was retained. The matches now consisted of sets. Each set comprised both archers shooting three arrows. The archer with the best score in the set received two points; if the set was drawn, each archer received one point. The match would continue until one archer reached six points. If the match was tied after five sets, a single arrow shoot-off was held with the closest arrow to center winning.[9]

Team

The team event uses the results of the same ranking round as the individual competition to determine seeding for the teams. The team's three individual archers' scores are summed to get a team ranking round score. The competition thereafter is a single-elimination bracket, with the top 4 teams receiving a bye into the quarterfinals. The semifinal losers face each other in the bronze medal match. The set format from the individual competition was not used in 2012, but was used beginning in 2016.[10] In team matches prior to 2016, each archer shot 8 arrows, with the best overall team score (for the total of 24 arrows) winning the match. Beginning with 2016, the set format (with each archer shooting two arrows per set for a total of six arrows per team per set) is used.

Mixed team

The mixed team competition uses the results of the ranking round to both qualify and seed teams. Each of the 16 teams that compete consist of one man and one woman.

Events

Early Games

Early Olympic archery competitions had events that were unique for each of the Games.

1900 1904 1908 1912 1920
7 events, men only 6 events, men and women 3 events, men and women not held 10 events, men only
 

Modern Games

Current program
Event 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Men's individual X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
Men's team X X X X X X X X X 9
Women's individual X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
Women's team X X X X X X X X X 9
Mixed team X 1
Events 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 45

Participating nations

The following nations have taken part in the Archery competition.

96   In the table headings, indicates the Games year, from 1896 to 2012
3 Number of archers participated in the specified Games
Archery not competed in these years
Host nation for the specified Games
  NOC did not compete in Games or was superseded or preceded by other NOC(s) during these years
Event 00 04 08 20 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
 Argentina (ARG) 2 1
 Australia (AUS) ANZ 3 4 3 2 3 3 5 6 6 5 2 4 4 13
 Austria (AUT) 1 1 1 1 4
 Azerbaijan (AZE) Russian Empire Soviet Union EUN 1 1
 Bangladesh (BAN) 1 1 2 3
 Belarus (BLR) Russian Empire Soviet Union EUN 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 7
 Belgium (BEL) 18 14 3 2 2 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 12
 Bhutan (BHU) 6 3 6 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 10
 Brazil (BRA) 2 1 2 2 1 1 6 2 8
 Bulgaria (BUL) 2 1 1 1 1 1 6
 Canada (CAN) 6 4 3 4 3 3 1 2 4 2 2 2 12
 Central African Republic (CAF) 1 1
 Chad (CHA) 1 1
 Chile (CHI) 1 1 1 1 4
 China (CHN) 6 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 10
 Chinese Taipei (TPE) 1 2 6 3 6 3 6 6 6 6 6 11
 Colombia (COL) 1 1 3 2 4 2 6
 Costa Rica (CRC) 2 2 1 3
 Cuba (CUB) 4 1 1 1 1 5
 Cyprus (CYP) 1 1 2
 Czech Republic (CZE) Bohemia Czechoslovakia 2 1 2
 Czechoslovakia (TCH) 3 1 2
 Denmark (DEN) 4 1 3 3 1 1 2 3 1 9
 Dominican Republic (DOM) 1 1
 Ecuador (ECU) 1 1
 Egypt (EGY) 1 4 2 2 2 2 6
 El Salvador (ESA) 1 1 2
 Estonia (EST) Russian Empire Soviet Union 1 1 1 1 1 5
 Fiji (FIJ) 1 1 1 3
 Finland (FIN) 3 2 4 5 6 3 3 3 1 1 2 1 12
 France (FRA) 129 15 8 5 2 2 6 6 4 5 6 5 4 3 4 15
 Georgia (GEO) Russian Empire Soviet Union EUN 1 3 2 2 1 3 6
 Germany (GER) 6 3 4 4 2 2 2 4 8
 West Germany (FRG) Germany 4 3 5 6 Germany 4
 Great Britain (GBR) 41 6 4 4 6 6 6 3 3 4 6 6 2 6 14
 Greece (GRE) 1 6 2 1 1 5
 Guam (GUM) 1 1
 Hong Kong (HKG) 6 3 1 1 4
 Hungary (HUN) 2 4 3 2 4
 India (IND) 3 3 2 6 4 6 4 4 8
 Indonesia (INA) 1 2 2 4 4 3 1 2 2 1 4 4 12
 Iran (IRI) 2 2 1 1 4
 Iraq (IRQ) 1 1
 Ireland (IRL) 1 3 2 3 1 1 6
 Israel (ISR) 1 1
 Italy (ITA) 3 4 3 3 3 4 6 6 4 6 6 6 4 13
 Ivory Coast (CIV) 1 1 2
 Japan (JPN) 4 4 5 6 6 5 5 6 5 6 4 6 11
 Jordan (JOR) 1 1
 Kazakhstan (KAZ) Russian Empire Soviet Union EUN 6 4 3 1 2 2 3 7
 Kenya (KEN) 2 1 1 3
 North Korea (PRK) 2 3 3 1 2 1 1 7
 South Korea (KOR) 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 11
 Laos (LAO) 1 1
 Libya (LBA) 1 1
 Luxembourg (LUX) 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 8
 Malawi (MAW) 1 1 2
 Malaysia (MAS) 1 3 4 3 2 5
 Malta (MLT) 2 1 1 3
 Mauritius (MRI) 1 1 1 3
 Mexico (MEX) 6 2 4 4 3 2 3 4 6 4 4 11
 Moldova (MDA) Russian Empire ROU Soviet Union EUN 1 1 1 2 4
 Monaco (MON) 1 1 2
 Mongolia (MGL) 3 4 4 3 1 1 2 1 2 8
 Morocco (MAR) 1 1
 Myanmar (MYA) 1 1 1 1 1 5
 Nepal (NEP) 1 1
 Netherlands (NED) 6 8 2 2 3 6 2 3 3 1 3 4 12
 New Zealand (NZL) ANZ 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 7
 Norway (NOR) 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 8
 Philippines (PHI) 3 2 1 1 1 2 6
 Poland (POL) 4 4 3 3 6 4 5 4 6 2 1 2 12
 Portugal (POR) 1 3 1 1 1 1 6
 Puerto Rico (PUR) 1 2 1 2 1 5
 Qatar (QAT) 1 1
 Romania (ROU) 4 1 2 3
 Russia (RUS) Russian Empire Soviet Union EUN 6 4 5 5 3 3 6
 Samoa (SAM) 1 1 2
 San Marino (SMR) 1 1 1 3
 Saudi Arabia (KSA) 3 2 2
 Slovakia (SVK) Hungary Czechoslovakia 2 1 2
 Slovenia (SLO) Austria / Hungary Yugoslavia 1 3 1 1 1 5
 Solomon Islands (SOL) 1 1
 South Africa (RSA) 2 3 2 1 1 1 6
 Soviet Union (URS) Russian Empire 6 3 4 6 EUN 4
 Unified Team (EUN) URS Soviet Union 6 1
 Spain (ESP) 2 2 4 4 4 1 1 2 1 2 4 2 12
 Sweden (SWE) 5 4 3 5 6 3 6 6 3 1 1 1 1 13
 Switzerland (SUI) 4 4 3 2 1 2 6
 Tajikistan (TJK) Russian Empire Soviet Union EUN 1 1 2
 Thailand (THA) 3 2 1 1 4
 Tonga (TGA) 1 2 2
 Tunisia (TUN) 2 1
 Turkey (TUR) 2 6 6 4 6 4 2 1 2 2 10
 Uganda (UGA) 1 1
 Ukraine (UKR) Russian Empire Soviet Union EUN 6 6 6 5 6 4 3 7
 United States (USA) 29 1 6 4 6 6 5 6 6 6 5 6 4 6 14
 Vanuatu (VAN) 1 1
 Venezuela (VEN) 1 2 2 3
 Vietnam (VIE) 2 1
 Virgin Islands (ISV) 1 1
 Yugoslavia (YUG) 1 1 2
 Zimbabwe (ZIM) 1 4 1 3
No. of nations 3 1 3 3 27 24 25 35 41 44 41 46 43 49 55 56 49 104
No. of archers 153 29 57 30 95 64 67 109 146 135 125 128 128 128 128 128 128
Year 00 04 08 20 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years

Records

The Olympic records for archery are for the competition format established in 1992.

Men's current records

# of arrows Archer(s) Score Games
72 (ranking)  Kim Woo-jin (KOR) 700 2016
216 (team ranking)  South Korea (KOR)
Im Dong-hyun
Kim Bub-min
Oh Jin-hyek
2087 2012

Women's current records

# of arrows Archer(s) Score Games
72 (ranking)  An San (KOR) 680[Notes 1] 2020
216 (team ranking)  South Korea (KOR)
Jang Min-hee
Kang Chae-young
An San
2032 2020

Mixed team current record

# of arrows Archer(s) Score Games
144 (ranking)  South Korea (KOR)
Kim Je-deok
An San
1368 2020

See also

References

  1. ^ "Obituary: Neroli Fairhall". The New Zealand Herald. New Zealand Media and Entertainment. 13 June 2006. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  2. ^ a b "History of World Archery". World Archery Federation. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  3. ^ Belgium Olympic Committee (1957). Olympic Games Antwerp 1920: Official Report (in French).
  4. ^ International Olympic Committee medal database
  5. ^ "Olympic Analytics - Medals by Countries". olympanalyt.com. Retrieved 2022-01-31.
  6. ^ "Archery Qualification" (PDF). World Archery Federation. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  7. ^ "2012 London Qualification System" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
  8. ^ "Joint Statement from the International Olympic Committee and the Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  9. ^ "London 2012 Archery Men's Individual". Archived from the original on 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
  10. ^ Archery 101: Competition format

Notes

  1. ^ Park Sung-hyun (KOR) set a world record of 682 points in the ranking round of 2004 Olympic Games, but it is not counted as Olympic record because the ranking round was held before the opening ceremony.

External links