Straight University

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    Straight University
    Straight University.jpg
    The school's campus, c. 1910
    Former names
    Straight College
    TypePrivate, HBCU
    Active1868–1934
    AffiliationAmerican Missionary Association
    Location, ,

    United States
    University Presidents
    W. S. Alexander 1869-1876
    James A. Adams 1877-1884
    R. C. Hitchcock 1885-1889
    Oscar Atwood 1890-1902
    Richard C. Hastings 1903-1906
    Stephen G. Butcher 1907-1908
    Elbert M. Stevens 1909-1915
    Howard A. M. Briggs 1916-1921
    James Putnam O'Brien 1922-1930
    Charles B. Austin 1931-1935

    Straight University, after 1915 Straight College, was a historically black college that operated between 1868 and 1934 in New Orleans, Louisiana. After struggling with financial difficulties, it was merged with New Orleans University to form Dillard University.

    History

    Responding to the post-Civil War need to educate newly freed African Americans in New Orleans, Louisiana and the surrounding region, the American Missionary Association of the Congregational Church founded Straight University on June 12, 1868.

    Straight University received its name as recognition for Seymour Straight's initial endowment gift. Straight was a wealthy cheese manufacturer from Hudson, Ohio. In 1915, the name "Straight University" was changed to Straight College, which more accurately represented the scope of the school's curriculum and program. Missionary work was a core concern, which extended from New Orleans to Africa.

    Throughout its history, Straight offered courses of study ranging from elementary- to college-level courses in music and theology. In 1934, after struggling with financial difficulties during the Great Depression, Straight College was merged with New Orleans University to form Dillard University.

    Law department

    Straight University also offered professional training, including a law department from 1874 to 1886. Its graduates participated in local and national Reconstruction and post-Reconstruction era civil rights struggles. For example, Louis André Martinet, an 1876 graduate of Straight University Law School, published The Crusader—a civil rights daily; co-founded the Comité des Citoyens (Citizens' Committee) in New Orleans, which worked for civil rights; and played a significant role in setting up the challenge to segregation of Plessy v. Ferguson, a landmark Supreme Court case.[1] His classmate Dan Desdunes joined him in this effort before moving to North Omaha, Nebraska to become a notable band leader.

    The Law department is historically notable as an integrated institution where blacks and whites were trained side by side. "It is an interesting fact of our 50 law graduates, 35 have been white."[2] The school struggled to provide its law students with a proper research library. The students typically met for classes in the law professors' offices.[2]

    In 1886, Straight discontinued the Law Department. It began to focus primarily on liberal arts, industrial arts, and teacher training.

    Campus

    The campus faced Canal Street, occupying the block between Tonti and Rocheblave streets backed by Gasquet (now Cleveland Avenue). After the university was absorbed into the newly created Dillard University, the campus buildings served as a school and YWCA for nearly two decades. They were demolished in 1950.Laborde & Magill, 2006

    Notable alumni

    Graduates had an important role in bringing education and medical care to African Americans during the early part of the 20th century. Physician James W. Ames, for example, founded the first hospital for blacks in Detroit in 1910. He created Dunbar Hospital for physicians and patients of color, as they were unable to practice in or be admitted to Detroit hospitals operated by whites.[3]

    Nellie A. Ramsey Leslie became a pioneer teacher in Indian Territory and later Texas.[4]

    Other notable alumni include Tom Yarborough, first Black mayor in California, P.B.S. Pinchback (first African-American governor of Louisiana and of any U.S. state); Ernest Lyon (educator and U.S. Ambassador to Liberia); Mary Booze (first African American to sit on the Republican National Committee, serving from Mississippi from 1924 to 1948); Alice Dunbar Nelson, foremother of the Harlem Renaissance; and Theodore K. Lawless (dermatologist and philanthropist).

    Notes

    • ^ Laborde & Magill (2006). "Canal Street: New Orleans' great wide way".
    1. ^ "Louis Andre Martinet", Notarial Archives
    2. ^ a b Alexander, W. S, D.D. (August 1882). "Straight University, New Orleans". The American Missionary. pp. 234–235. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
    3. ^ Baulch, Vivian M. "How Detroit got its first black hospital". Detroit News Rearview Mirror. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
    4. ^ Majors, Monroe A. (1893). Noted Negro Women, Their Triumphs and Activities (Reprint 1971 by Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Donohue and Henneberry. pp. 242–244. ISBN 0-8369-8733-0.

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