Javelin throw

Athletics
Javelin throw
Thomas Röhler 2011.jpg
German javelin thrower Thomas Röhler in 2011
World records
MenCzech Republic Jan Železný 98.48 m (323 ft 1 in) (1996)
WomenCzech Republic Barbora Špotáková 72.28 m (237 ft 1+12 in) (2008)
Olympic records
MenNorway Andreas Thorkildsen 90.57 m (297 ft 1+12 in) (2008)
WomenCuba Osleidys Menéndez 71.53 m (234 ft 8 in) (2004)
World Championship records
MenCzech Republic Jan Železný 92.80 m (304 ft 5+12 in) (2001)
WomenCuba Osleidys Menéndez 71.70 m (235 ft 2+34 in) (2005)
German javelin thrower Stephan Steding during the 2007 IAAF World Championships in Osaka, Japan

The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in length, is thrown. The javelin thrower gains momentum by running within a predetermined area. Javelin throwing is an event of both the men's decathlon and the women's heptathlon.

History

A scene depicting javelin throwers and other pentathletes. Originally found on a Panathenaic amphora from Ancient Greece, circa 525 B.C. British Museum.

The javelin throw was added to the Ancient Olympic Games as part of the pentathlon in 708 BC. It included two events, one for distance and the other for accuracy in hitting a target. The javelin was thrown with the aid of a thong (ankyle in Greek) that was wound around the middle of the shaft. Athletes held the javelin by the ankyle, and when they released the shaft, the unwinding of the thong gave the javelin a spiral trajectory.

Throwing javelin-like poles into targets was revived in Germany and Sweden in the early 1870s. In Sweden, these poles developed into the modern javelin, and throwing them for distance became a common event there and in Finland in the 1880s. The rules continued to evolve over the next decades; originally, javelins were thrown with no run-up, and holding them by the grip at the center of gravity was not always mandatory. Limited run-ups were introduced in the late 1890s, and soon developed into the modern unlimited run-up.[1]: 435–436 

Sweden's Eric Lemming, who threw his first world best (49.32 meters) in 1899 and ruled the event from 1902 to 1912, was the first dominant javelin thrower.[1]: 436, 441 [2]: 478  When the men's javelin was introduced as an Olympic discipline at the 1906 Intercalated Games, Lemming won by almost nine metres and broke his own world record; Sweden swept the first four places, as Finland's best throwers were absent and the event had yet to become popular in any other country.[1]: 437  Though challenged by younger talents, Lemming repeated as Olympic champion in 1908 and 1912; his eventual best mark (62.32 m, thrown after the 1912 Olympics) was the first javelin world record to be officially ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations.[1]: 436–441 [3]

In the late 19th and early 20th century, most javelin competitions were two-handed; the implement was thrown with the right hand and separately with the left hand, and the best marks for each hand were added together. Competitions for the better hand only were less common, though not unknown.[2] At the Olympics, a both-hands contest was held only once, in 1912; Finland swept the medals, ahead of Lemming.[1]: 441  After that, this version of the javelin rapidly faded into obscurity, together with similar variations of the shot and the discus; Sweden's Yngve Häckner, with his total of 114.28 m from 1917, was the last official both-hands world record holder.[4]

Another early variant was the freestyle javelin, in which holding the javelin by the grip at the center of gravity was not mandatory; such a freestyle competition was held at the 1908 Olympics, but was dropped from the program after that.[2]: 478  Hungary's Mór Kóczán used a freestyle end grip to break the 60-meter barrier in 1911, a year before Lemming and Julius Saaristo first did so with a regular grip.[1]: 440 [5]: 214 

The first known women's javelin marks were recorded in Finland in 1909.[6] Originally, women threw the same implement as men; a lighter, shorter javelin for women was introduced in the 1920s. Women's javelin throw was added to the Olympic program in 1932; Mildred "Babe" Didrikson of the United States became the first champion.[2]: 479 

For a long time, javelins were made of solid wood, typically birch, with a steel tip. The hollow, highly aerodynamic Held javelin, invented by American thrower Bud Held and developed and manufactured by his brother Dick, was introduced in the 1950s; the first Held javelins were also wooden with steel tips, but later models were made entirely of metal.[2]: 478–479 [6][7] These new javelins flew further, but were also less likely to land neatly point first; as a response to the increasingly frequent flat or ambiguously flat landings, experiments with modified javelins started in the early 1980s. The resulting designs, which made flat landings much less common and reduced the distances thrown, became official for men starting in April 1986 and for women in April 1999, and the world records (then 104.80 m by Uwe Hohn, and 80.00 m by Petra Felke) were reset.[8] The current (as of 2017) men's world record is held by Jan Železný at 98.48 m (1996); Barbora Špotáková holds the women's world record at 72.28 m (2008).

Of the 69 Olympic medals that have been awarded in the men's javelin, 32 have gone to competitors from Norway, Sweden or Finland. Finland is the only nation to have swept the medals at a currently recognized official Olympics, and has done so twice, in 1920 and 1932, in addition to its 1912 sweep in the two-handed javelin; in 1920 Finland swept the first four places, which is no longer possible as only three entrants per country are allowed. Finland has, however, never been nearly as successful in the women's javelin.[2]: 479 

The javelin throw has been part of the decathlon since the decathlon was introduced in the early 1910s; the all-around, an earlier ten-event contest of American origin, did not include the javelin throw. The javelin was also part of some (though not all) of the many early forms of women's pentathlon and has always been included in the heptathlon after it replaced the pentathlon in 1981.[9]

Rules and competitions

The size, shape, minimum weight, and center of gravity of the javelin are all defined by IAAF rules. In international competition, men throw a javelin between 2.6 and 2.7 m (8 ft 6 in and 8 ft 10 in) in length and 800 g (28 oz) in weight, and women throw a javelin between 2.2 and 2.3 m (7 ft 3 in and 7 ft 7 in) in length and 600 g (21 oz) in weight. The javelin has a grip, about 150 mm (5.9 in) wide, made of cord and located at the javelin's center of gravity (0.9 to 1.06 m (2 ft 11 in to 3 ft 6 in)) from the javelin tip for the men's javelin and 0.8 to 0.92 m (2 ft 7 in to 3 ft 0 in) from the javelin tip for the women's javelin.

Matti Järvinen throwing the javelin at the 1932 Olympics

Unlike the other throwing events (shot put, discus, and hammer), the technique used to throw the javelin is dictated by IAAF rules and "non-orthodox" techniques are not permitted. The javelin must be held at its grip and thrown overhand, over the athlete's shoulder or upper arm. Further, the athlete is prohibited from turning completely around or starting with their back facing the direction of the throw. This prevents athletes from attempting to spin and hurl the javelin sidearm in the style of a discus throw. This rule was put in place when a group of athletes began experimenting with a spin technique referred to as "free style". On 24 October 1956, Pentti Saarikoski threw 99.52 m (326 ft 6 in)[10] using the technique holding the end of the javelin. Officials were so afraid of the out of control nature of the technique that the practice was banned through these rule specifications.

Instead of being confined to a circle, javelin throwers have a runway 4 m (13 ft) wide and at least 30 m (98 ft) in length, ending in an 8 m (26 ft) radius throwing arc from which their throw is measured; athletes typically use this distance to gain momentum in a "run-up" to their throw. Like the other throwing events, the competitor may not leave the throwing area (the runway) until after the implement lands. The need to come to a stop behind the throwing arc limits both how close the athlete can come to the line before the release as well as the maximum speed achieved at the time of release.

The javelin is thrown towards a 28.96º circular sector that is centered on the center point of the throwing arc. The angle of the throwing sector (28.96º) provides sector boundaries that are easy to construct and lay out on a field.[11] A throw is only legal if the tip of the javelin lands within this sector and first strikes the ground with its tip before any other part.[12] The distance of the throw is measured from the throwing arc to the point where the tip of the javelin landed, rounded down to the nearest centimeter.

Competition rules are similar to other throwing events: a round consists of one attempt by each competitor in turn, and competitions typically consist of three to six rounds. The competitor with the longest single legal throw (over all rounds) is the winner; in case of a tie, the competitors' second-longest throws are also considered. Competitions involving large numbers of athletes sometimes use a cut whereby all competitors compete in the first three rounds but only those who are currently among the top eight or have achieved some minimum distances are permitted to attempt to improve on their distance in additional rounds (typically three).

Javelin redesigns

Uwe Hohn (pictured in 1984) holds the "eternal world record" with a throw of 104.80 m as a new type of javelin was implemented in 1986.

On 1 April 1986, the men's javelin (800 grams (1.76 lb)) was redesigned by the governing body (the IAAF Technical Committee). They decided to change the rules for javelin design because of the increasingly frequent flat landings and the resulting discussions and protests when these attempts were declared valid or invalid by competition judges. The world record had also crept up to a potentially dangerous level, 104.80 m (343.8 ft) by Uwe Hohn. With throws exceeding 100 meters, it was becoming difficult to safely stage the competition within the confines of a stadium infield. The javelin was redesigned so that the centre of gravity was moved 4 cm (1.6 in) forward. In addition, the surface area in front of centre of gravity was reduced, while the surface area behind the centre of gravity was increased. This had an effect similar to that produced by the feathers on an arrow. The javelin turns into the relative wind. This relative wind appears to originate from the ground as the javelin descends, thus the javelin turns to face the ground. As the javelin turns into the wind less lift is generated, reducing the flight distance by around 10% but also causing the javelin to stick in the ground more consistently. In 1999, the women's javelin (600 grams (1.32 lb)) was similarly redesigned.[13]

Modifications that manufacturers made to recover some of the lost distance, by increasing tail drag (using holes, rough paint or dimples), were forbidden at the end of 1991 and marks made using implements with such modifications removed from the record books. Seppo Räty had achieved a world record of 96.96 m (318.1 ft) in 1991 with such a design, but this record was nullified.

Weight rules by age group

The weight of the javelin in the Under-20 category is the same as the senior level.[14]

Men Women
Age group Weight Weight
U13 400 g 400 g
U15 600 g 500 g
U18 700 g 500 g
Junior (U20) 800 g 600 g
Senior 800 g 600 g
35–49 800 g 600 g
50–74 500 g
50–59 700 g
60–69 600 g
70–79 500 g
75+ 400 g
80+ 400 g

Technique and training

Unlike other throwing events, javelin allows the competitor to build speed over a considerable distance. In addition, the core and upper body strength is necessary to deliver the implement, javelin throwers benefit from the agility and athleticism typically associated with running and jumping events. Thus, the athletes share more physical characteristics with sprinters than with others, although they still need the skill of heavier throwing athletes.

Traditional free-weight training is often used by javelin throwers. Metal-rod exercises and resistance band exercises can be used to train a similar action to the javelin throw to increase power and intensity. Without proper strength and flexibility, throwers can become extremely injury prone, especially in the shoulder and elbow. Core stability can help in the transference of physical power and force from the ground through the body to the javelin. Stretching and sprint training are used to enhance the speed of the athlete at the point of release, and subsequently, the speed of the javelin. At release, a javelin can reach speeds approaching 113 km/h (70 mph).

The javelin throw consists of three separate phases: the run-up, the transition, and the delivery. During each phase, the position of the javelin changes while the thrower changes his or her muscle recruitment. In the run-up phase as Luann Voza states, "your arm is bent and kept close to your head, keeping the javelin in alignment with little to no arm movement".[15] This allows the thrower's bicep to contract, flexing the elbow. In order for the javelin to stay up high, the thrower's deltoid flexes. In the transition phase, the thrower's "back muscles contract" as "the javelin is brought back in alignment with the shoulder with the thrower's palm up".[15] This, according to Voza, "stretches your pectoral, or chest, muscles. From there, a stretch reflex, an involuntary contraction of your chest, helps bring your throwing arm forward with increased force".[15] During the final phase, the rotation of the shoulders initiates the release, which then "transfers movement through the triceps muscles, wrists and fingers to extend the throwing arm forward to release the javelin".[15]

US high school and youth competitions

Due to the fear of liability, the javelin throw is not an event in NFHS high school competition in 36 states, though USATF youth competitions for the same aged athletes do hold javelin competitions.[16] At various points in time, high schools have attempted to create substitute events, including the softball throw, football throw[17] and the grenade throw,[18] throwing different objects under rules similar to javelin throw rules. In those states that do allow high school javelin competition, a few specify that the tip must be of rubber. Further, in age group track meets in the U.S., and in particular with elementary-school children in the Northeast, the Turbojav—a smaller plastic implement with a rubber tip but with similar flying characteristics as a real javelin—is a popular alternative.

Culture

A women's and a men's javelin

In 1994, Michael Torke composed Javelin, commissioned by the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games in celebration of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra's 50th anniversary season, in conjunction with the 1996 Summer Olympics.

Javelin throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €5 Finnish 10th IAAF World Championships in Athletics commemorative coin, minted in 2005 to commemorate the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. On the obverse of the coin, a javelin thrower is depicted. On the reverse, legs of hurdle runners with the Helsinki Olympic Stadium tower in the background can be seen.

All-time top 25 (current models)

Men

Ath.# Perf.# Mark Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 1 98.48 m (323 ft 1 in) Jan Železný  Czech Republic 25 MAY 1996 Jena
2 2 97.76 m (320 ft 8+34 in) Johannes Vetter  Germany 06 SEP 2020 Chorzów [21]
3 96.29 m (315 ft 10+34 in) Vetter #2 29 MAY 2021 Chorzów
4 95.66 m (313 ft 10 in) Železný #2 29 AUG 1993 Sheffield
5 95.54 m (313 ft 5+14 in) A Železný #3 06 APR 1993 Pietersburg
6 94.64 m (310 ft 5+34 in) Železný #4 31 MAY 1996 Ostrava
7 94.44 m (309 ft 10 in) Vetter #3 11 JUL 2017 Luzern
8 94.20 m (309 ft 12 in) Vetter #4 19 MAY 2021 Ostrava
9 94.02 m (308 ft 5+12 in) Železný #5 26 MAR 1997 Stellenbosch
3 10 93.90 m (308 ft 34 in) Thomas Röhler  Germany 05 MAY 2017 Doha [22]
11 93.88 m (308 ft 0 in) Vetter #5 18 AUG 2017 Thum
12 93.59 m (307 ft 12 in) Vetter #6 26 JUN 2021 Kuortane
13 93.20 m (305 ft 9+14 in) Vetter #7 21 MAY 2021 Dessau
4 14 93.09 m (305 ft 4+34 in) Aki Parviainen  Finland 26 JUN 1999 Kuortane
5 15 93.07 m (305 ft 4 in) Anderson Peters  Grenada 13 MAY 2022 Doha [23]
16 92.80 m (304 ft 5+12 in) Železný #6 12 AUG 2001 Edmonton
6 17 92.72 m (304 ft 2+14 in) Julius Yego  Kenya 26 AUG 2015 Beijing [24]
18 92.70 m (304 ft 1+12 in) Vetter #8 11 MAR 2018 Leiria
7 19 92.61 m (303 ft 10 in) Sergey Makarov  Russia 30 JUN 2002 Sheffield
8 20 92.60 m (303 ft 9+12 in) Raymond Hecht  Germany 14 AUG 1996 Zürich
21 92.42 m (303 ft 2+12 in) Železný #7 28 MAY 1997 Ostrava
22 92.41 m (303 ft 2 in) Parviainen #2 24 JUN 2001 Vaasa
23 92.28 m (302 ft 9 in) Železný #8 09 SEP 1995 Monaco
Hecht #2 14 AUG 1996 Zürich
25 92.14 m (302 ft 3+12 in) Vetter #9 29 JUN 2021 Luzern
9 92.06 m (302 ft 14 in) Andreas Hofmann  Germany 02 JUN 2018 Offenburg [25]
10 91.69 m (300 ft 9+34 in) Konstadinós Gatsioúdis  Greece 24 JUN 2000 Kuortane
11 91.59 m (300 ft 5+34 in) Andreas Thorkildsen  Norway 02 JUN 2006 Oslo
12 91.53 m (300 ft 3+12 in) Tero Pitkämäki  Finland 26 JUN 2005 Kuortane
13 91.46 m (300 ft 34 in) Steve Backley  United Kingdom 25 JAN 1992 Auckland [26]
14 91.36 m (299 ft 8+34 in) Cheng Chao-tsun  Chinese Taipei 26 AUG 2017 Taipei [27]
15 91.29 m (299 ft 6 in) Breaux Greer  United States 21 JUN 2007 Indianapolis
16 90.88 m (298 ft 1+34 in) Jakub Vadlejch  Czech Republic 13 MAY 2022 Doha [23]
17 90.82 m (297 ft 11+12 in) Kimmo Kinnunen  Finland 26 AUG 1991 Tokyo
18 90.73 m (297 ft 8 in) Vadims Vasiļevskis  Latvia 22 JUL 2007 Tallinn
19 90.61 m (297 ft 3+14 in) Magnus Kirt  Estonia 22 JUN 2019 Kuortane [28]
20 90.60 m (297 ft 2+34 in) Seppo Räty  Finland 20 JUL 1992 Nurmijärvi
21 90.44 m (296 ft 8+12 in) Boris Henry  Germany 09 JUL 1997 Linz
22 90.18 m (295 ft 10+14 in) Arshad Nadeem  Pakistan 07 AUG 2022 Birmingham [29]
23 90.16 m (295 ft 9+12 in) Keshorn Walcott  Trinidad and Tobago 09 JUL 2015 Lausanne
24 89.94 m (295 ft 34 in) Neeraj Chopra  India 30 JUN 2022 Stockholm [30]
25 89.83 m (294 ft 8+12 in) Oliver Helander  Finland 14 JUN 2022 Turku [31]

Women

  • Correct as of May 2022.[32]
Ath.# Perf.# Mark Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 1 72.28 m (237 ft 1+12 in) Barbora Špotáková  Czech Republic 13 SEP 2008 Stuttgart
2 2 71.70 m (235 ft 2+34 in) Osleidys Menéndez  Cuba 14 AUG 2005 Helsinki
3 71.58 m (234 ft 10 in) Špotáková #2 02 SEP 2011 Daegu
4 71.54 m (234 ft 8+12 in) Menéndez #2 01 JUL 2001 Rethymno
5 71.53 m (234 ft 8 in) Menéndez #3 27 AUG 2004 Athens
6 71.42 m (234 ft 3+34 in) Špotáková #3 21 AUG 2008 Beijing
3 7 71.40 m (234 ft 3 in) Maria Andrejczyk  Poland 09 MAY 2021 Split [33]
4 8 70.53 m (231 ft 4+34 in) Mariya Abakumova  Russia 01 SEP 2013 Berlin
5 9 70.20 m (230 ft 3+34 in) Christina Obergföll  Germany 23 JUN 2007 Munich
10 70.03 m (229 ft 9 in) Obergföll #2 14 AUG 2005 Helsinki
11 69.82 m (229 ft 34 in) Menéndez #4 29 AUG 2001 Beijing
12 69.81 m (229 ft 14 in) Obergföll #3 31 AUG 2008 Elstal
13 69.75 m (228 ft 10 in) Abakumova #2 25 AUG 2013 Elstal
14 69.57 m (228 ft 2+34 in) Obergföll #4 08 SEP 2011 Zürich
15 69.55 m (228 ft 2 in) Špotáková #4 09 AUG 2012 London
16 69.53 m (228 ft 1+14 in) Menéndez #5 06 AUG 2001 Edmonton
6 17 69.48 m (227 ft 11+14 in) Trine Hattestad  Norway 28 JUL 2000 Oslo
18 69.45 m (227 ft 10+14 in) Špotáková #5 22 JUL 2011 Monaco
7 19 69.35 m (227 ft 6+14 in) Sunette Viljoen  South Africa 09 JUN 2012 New York City
20 69.34 m (227 ft 5+34 in) Abakumova #3 16 MAR 2013 Castellón
8 21 69.19 m (227 ft 0 in) Christin Hussong  Germany 30 MAY 2021 Chorzów [34]
22 69.15 m (226 ft 10+14 in) Špotáková #6 31 MAY 2008 Zaragoza
23 69.09 m (226 ft 8 in) Abakumova #4 16 AUG 2013 Moscow
24 69.05 m (226 ft 6+12 in) Obergföll #5 18 AUG 2013 Moscow
25 68.94 m (226 ft 2 in) Abakumova #5 29 AUG 2013 Zürich
9 68.92 m (226 ft 1+14 in) Kathryn Mitchell  Australia 11 APR 2018 Gold Coast [35]
10 68.43 m (224 ft 6 in) Sara Kolak  Croatia 06 JUL 2017 Lausanne [36]
11 68.34 m (224 ft 2+12 in) Steffi Nerius  Germany 31 AUG 2008 Elstal
12 68.11 m (223 ft 5+14 in) Kara Winger  United States 02 SEP 2022 Brussels [37]
13 67.98 m (223 ft 14 in) Lü Huihui  China 02 AUG 2019 Shenyang [38]
14 67.70 m (222 ft 1+14 in) Kelsey-Lee Barber  Australia 09 JUL 2019 Lucerne [39]
15 67.69 m (222 ft 34 in) Katharina Molitor  Germany 30 AUG 2015 Beijing [40]
16 67.67 m (222 ft 0 in) Sonia Bisset  Cuba 06 JUL 2005 Salamanca
17 67.51 m (221 ft 5+34 in) Mirela Manjani  Greece 30 SEP 2000 Sydney
18 67.47 m (221 ft 4+14 in) Tatsiana Khaladovich  Belarus 07 JUN 2018 Oslo [41]
19 67.40 m (221 ft 1+12 in) Nikola Ogrodníková  Czech Republic 26 MAY 2019 Offenburg [42]
Maggie Malone  United States 17 JUL 2021 East Stroudsburg
21 67.32 m (220 ft 10+14 in) Linda Stahl  Germany 14 JUN 2014 New York City
22 67.30 m (220 ft 9+12 in) Vera Rebrik  Russia 19 FEB 2016 Sochi
23 67.29 m (220 ft 9 in) Hanna Hatsko-Fedusova  Ukraine 26 JUL 2014 Kirovohrad
Liu Shiying  China 15 SEP 2020 Shaoxing [43]
25 67.21 m (220 ft 6 in) Eda Tuğsuz  Turkey 18 MAY 2017 Baku [44]

Annulled marks

  • In 2011, Mariya Abakumova threw 71.99 metres. This performance was annulled due to doping offences.

All-time top 5 (dimpled models 1990–1991)

Marks set using dimpled rough-tailed javelins manufactured by several companies were nullified effective 20 September 1991.[5]: 208–209 

Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 96.96  Seppo Räty (FIN) 2 June 1991 Punkalaidun [45]
2 91.36  Steve Backley (GBR) 15 September 1991 Sheffield
3 90.84  Raymond Hecht (GER) 8 September 1991 Gengenbach
4 90.82  Kimmo Kinnunen (FIN) 26 August 1991 Tokyo
5 90.72  Jan Železný (TCH) 10 July 1991 Lausanne

All-time top 15 (old models)

Men

Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 104.80  Uwe Hohn (GDR) 21 July 1984 Berlin
2 99.72  Tom Petranoff (USA) 15 May 1983 Westwood
3 96.72  Ferenc Paragi (HUN) 23 April 1980 Tata
 Detlef Michel (GDR) 9 June 1983 Berlin
5 95.80  Bob Roggy (USA) 29 August 1982 Stuttgart
6 95.10  Brian Crouser (USA) 5 August 1985 Eugene
7 94.58  Miklós Németh (HUN) 26 July 1976 Montreal
8 94.22  Michael Wessing (FRG) 3 August 1978 Oslo
9 94.20  Heino Puuste (URS) 5 June 1983 Birmingham
10 94.08  Klaus Wolfermann (FRG) 5 May 1973 Leverkusen
11 94.06  Duncan Atwood (USA) 26 July 1985 Eugene
12 93.90  Hannu Siitonen (FIN) 6 June 1973 Helsinki
13 93.84  Pentti Sinersaari (FIN) 27 January 1979 Auckland
14 93.80  Jānis Lūsis (URS) 6 July 1972 Stockholm
15 93.70  Viktor Yevsyukov (URS) 17 July 1985 Kyiv

Women

Tessa Sanderson appeared in every Summer Olympics from 1976 to 1996, winning the gold medal in the javelin at the 1984 Olympics. She was the first Black British woman to win an Olympic gold medal, and the second track and field athlete to compete at six Olympics. Sanderson won gold medals at three Commonwealth Games and at the 1992 IAAF World Cup. She set five Commonwealth records and ten British national records in the javelin, as well as records at junior and masters levels. Sanderson had a rivalry with fellow Briton Fatima Whitbread, who took the bronze in the 1984 Olympics.
Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 80.00  Petra Felke (GDR) 8 September 1988 Potsdam
2 77.44  Fatima Whitbread (GBR) 28 August 1986 Stuttgart
3 74.76  Tiina Lillak (FIN) 13 June 1983 Tampere
4 74.20  Sofia Sakorafa (GRE) 26 September 1982 Hania
5 73.58  Tessa Sanderson (GBR) 26 June 1983 Edinburgh
6 72.70  Anna Verouli (GRE) 20 May 1984 Hania
7 72.16  Antje Kempe (GDR) 5 May 1984 Celje
8 72.12  Trine Hattestad (NOR) 10 July 1993 Oslo
9 71.88  Antoaneta Todorova (BUL) 15 August 1981 Birmingham
10 71.82  Ivonne Leal (CUB) 30 August 1985 Leverkusen
11 71.40  Natalya Shikolenko (BLR) 5 June 1994 Sevilla
12 71.00  Silke Renk (GDR) 25 June 1988 Rostock
13 70.76  Beate Koch (GDR) 22 June 1989 Rostock
14 70.42  Zhang Li (CHN) 6 August 1990 Tianjin
15 70.20  Karen Forkel (GER) 9 May 1991 Halle

Olympic medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1908 London
details
Eric Lemming
 Sweden
Arne Halse
 Norway
Otto Nilsson
 Sweden
1912 Stockholm
details
Eric Lemming
 Sweden
Julius Saaristo
 Finland
Mór Kóczán
 Hungary
1920 Antwerp
details
Jonni Myyrä
 Finland
Urho Peltonen
 Finland
Pekka Johansson
 Finland
1924 Paris
details
Jonni Myyrä
 Finland
Gunnar Lindström
 Sweden
Eugene Oberst
 United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
Erik Lundqvist
 Sweden
Béla Szepes
 Hungary
Olav Sunde
 Norway
1932 Los Angeles
details
Matti Järvinen
 Finland
Matti Sippala
 Finland
Eino Penttilä
 Finland
1936 Berlin
details
Gerhard Stöck
 Germany
Yrjö Nikkanen
 Finland
Kalervo Toivonen
 Finland
1948 London
details
Tapio Rautavaara
 Finland
Steve Seymour
 United States
József Várszegi
 Hungary
1952 Helsinki
details
Cy Young
 United States
Bill Miller
 United States
Toivo Hyytiäinen
 Finland
1956 Melbourne
details
Egil Danielsen
 Norway
Janusz Sidło
 Poland
Viktor Tsybulenko
 Soviet Union
1960 Rome
details
Viktor Tsybulenko
 Soviet Union
Walter Krüger
 United Team of Germany
Gergely Kulcsár
 Hungary
1964 Tokyo
details
Pauli Nevala
 Finland
Gergely Kulcsár
 Hungary
Jānis Lūsis
 Soviet Union
1968 Mexico City
details
Jānis Lūsis
 Soviet Union
Jorma Kinnunen
 Finland
Gergely Kulcsár
 Hungary
1972 Munich
details
Klaus Wolfermann
 West Germany
Jānis Lūsis
 Soviet Union
Bill Schmidt
 United States
1976 Montreal
details
Miklós Németh
 Hungary
Hannu Siitonen
 Finland
Gheorghe Megelea
 Romania
1980 Moscow
details
Dainis Kūla
 Soviet Union
Aleksandr Makarov
 Soviet Union
Wolfgang Hanisch
 East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Arto Härkönen
 Finland
David Ottley
 Great Britain
Kenth Eldebrink
 Sweden
1988 Seoul
details
Tapio Korjus
 Finland
Jan Železný
 Czechoslovakia
Seppo Räty
 Finland
1992 Barcelona
details
Jan Železný
 Czechoslovakia
Seppo Räty
 Finland
Steve Backley
 Great Britain
1996 Atlanta
details
Jan Železný
 Czech Republic
Steve Backley
 Great Britain
Seppo Räty
 Finland
2000 Sydney
details
Jan Železný
 Czech Republic
Steve Backley
 Great Britain
Sergey Makarov
 Russia
2004 Athens
details
Andreas Thorkildsen
 Norway
Vadims Vasiļevskis
 Latvia
Sergey Makarov
 Russia
2008 Beijing
details
Andreas Thorkildsen
 Norway
Ainārs Kovals
 Latvia
Tero Pitkämäki
 Finland
2012 London
details
Keshorn Walcott
 Trinidad and Tobago
Antti Ruuskanen
 Finland
Vítězslav Veselý
 Czech Republic
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Thomas Röhler
 Germany
Julius Yego
 Kenya
Keshorn Walcott
 Trinidad and Tobago
2020 Tokyo
details
Neeraj Chopra
 India
Jakub Vadlejch
 Czech Republic
Vítězslav Veselý
 Czech Republic

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1932 Los Angeles
details
Babe Didrikson
 United States
Ellen Braumüller
 Germany
Tilly Fleischer
 Germany
1936 Berlin
details
Tilly Fleischer
 Germany
Luise Krüger
 Germany
Maria Kwaśniewska
 Poland
1948 London
details
Herma Bauma
 Austria
Kaisa Parviainen
 Finland
Lily Carlstedt
 Denmark
1952 Helsinki
details
Dana Zátopková
 Czechoslovakia
Aleksandra Chudina
 Soviet Union
Yelena Gorchakova
 Soviet Union
1956 Melbourne
details
Inese Jaunzeme
 Soviet Union
Marlene Ahrens
 Chile
Nadezhda Konyayeva
 Soviet Union
1960 Rome
details
Elvīra Ozoliņa
 Soviet Union
Dana Zátopková
 Czechoslovakia
Birutė Kalėdienė
 Soviet Union
1964 Tokyo
details
Mihaela Peneș
 Romania
Márta Rudas
 Hungary
Yelena Gorchakova
 Soviet Union
1968 Mexico City
details
Angéla Németh
 Hungary
Mihaela Peneș
 Romania
Eva Janko
 Austria
1972 Munich
details
Ruth Fuchs
 East Germany
Jacqueline Todten
 East Germany
Kate Schmidt
 United States
1976 Montreal
details
Ruth Fuchs
 East Germany
Marion Becker
 West Germany
Kate Schmidt
 United States
1980 Moscow
details
María Caridad Colón
 Cuba
Saida Gunba
 Soviet Union
Ute Hommola
 East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Tessa Sanderson
 Great Britain
Tiina Lillak
 Finland
Fatima Whitbread
 Great Britain
1988 Seoul
details
Petra Felke
 East Germany
Fatima Whitbread
 Great Britain
Beate Koch
 East Germany
1992 Barcelona
details
Silke Renk
 Germany
Natalya Shikolenko
 Unified Team
Karen Forkel
 Germany
1996 Atlanta
details
Heli Rantanen
 Finland
Louise McPaul
 Australia
Trine Hattestad
 Norway
2000 Sydney
details
Trine Hattestad
 Norway
Mirela Maniani-Tzelili
 Greece
Osleidys Menéndez
 Cuba
2004 Athens
details
Osleidys Menéndez
 Cuba
Steffi Nerius
 Germany
Mirela Maniani
 Greece
2008 Beijing
details
Barbora Špotáková
 Czech Republic
Christina Obergföll
 Germany[46]
Goldie Sayers
 Great Britain
2012 London
details
Barbora Špotáková
 Czech Republic
Christina Obergföll
 Germany
Linda Stahl
 Germany
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Sara Kolak
 Croatia
Sunette Viljoen
 South Africa
Barbora Špotáková
 Czech Republic
2020 Tokyo
details
Liu Shiying
 China
Maria Andrejczyk
 Poland
Kelsey-Lee Barber
 Australia

World Championships medalists

Men

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Detlef Michel (GDR)  Tom Petranoff (USA)  Dainis Kūla (URS)
1987 Rome
details
 Seppo Räty (FIN)  Viktor Yevsyukov (URS)  Jan Železný (TCH)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Kimmo Kinnunen (FIN)  Seppo Räty (FIN)  Vladimir Sasimovich (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Jan Železný (CZE)  Kimmo Kinnunen (FIN)  Mick Hill (GBR)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Jan Železný (CZE)  Steve Backley (GBR)  Boris Henry (GER)
1997 Athens
details
 Marius Corbett (RSA)  Steve Backley (GBR)  Konstadinos Gatsioudis (GRE)
1999 Seville
details
 Aki Parviainen (FIN)  Konstadinos Gatsioudis (GRE)  Jan Železný (CZE)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Jan Železný (CZE)  Aki Parviainen (FIN)  Konstadinos Gatsioudis (GRE)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Sergey Makarov (RUS)  Andrus Värnik (EST)  Boris Henry (GER)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Andrus Värnik (EST)  Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Sergey Makarov (RUS)
2007 Osaka
details
 Tero Pitkämäki (FIN)  Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Breaux Greer (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
 Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Guillermo Martínez (CUB)  Yukifumi Murakami (JPN)
2011 Daegu
details
 Matthias de Zordo (GER)  Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Guillermo Martínez (CUB)
2013 Moscow
details
 Vítězslav Veselý (CZE)  Tero Pitkämäki (FIN)  Dmitriy Tarabin (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
 Julius Yego (KEN)  Ihab Abdelrahman (EGY)  Tero Pitkämäki (FIN)
2017 London
details
 Johannes Vetter (GER)  Jakub Vadlejch (CZE)  Petr Frydrych (CZE)
2019 Doha
details
 Anderson Peters (GRN)  Magnus Kirt (EST)  Johannes Vetter (GER)
2022 Eugene
details
 Anderson Peters (GRN)  Neeraj Chopra (IND)  Jakub Vadlejch (CZE)

Women

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Tiina Lillak (FIN)  Fatima Whitbread (GBR)  Anna Verouli (GRE)
1987 Rome
details
 Fatima Whitbread (GBR)  Petra Felke-Meier (GDR)  Beate Peters (FRG)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Xu Demei (CHN)  Petra Felke-Meier (GER)  Silke Renk (GER)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Trine Solberg-Hattestad (NOR)  Karen Forkel (GER)  Natalya Shikolenko (BLR)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Natalya Shikolenko (BLR)  Felicia Țilea-Moldovan (ROU)  Mikaela Ingberg (FIN)
1997 Athens
details
 Trine Solberg-Hattestad (NOR)  Joanna Stone (AUS)  Tanja Damaske (GER)
1999 Seville
details
 Mirela Manjani-Tzelili (GRE)  Tatyana Shikolenko (RUS)  Trine Solberg-Hattestad (NOR)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Osleidys Menéndez (CUB)  Mirela Manjani-Tzelili (GRE)  Sonia Bisset (CUB)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Mirela Maniani (GRE)  Tatyana Shikolenko (RUS)  Steffi Nerius (GER)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Osleidys Menéndez (CUB)  Christina Obergföll (GER)  Steffi Nerius (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
 Barbora Špotáková (CZE)  Christina Obergföll (GER)  Steffi Nerius (GER)
2009 Berlin[47]
details
 Steffi Nerius (GER)  Barbora Špotáková (CZE)  Monica Stoian (ROM)
2011 Daegu[48]
details
 Barbora Špotáková (CZE)  Sunette Viljoen (RSA)  Christina Obergföll (GER)
2013 Moscow
details
 Christina Obergföll (GER)  Kim Mickle (AUS)  Mariya Abakumova (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
 Katharina Molitor (GER)  Lü Huihui (CHN)  Sunette Viljoen (RSA)
2017 London
details
 Barbora Špotáková (CZE)  Li Lingwei (CHN)  Lü Huihui (CHN)
2019 Doha
details
 Kelsey-Lee Barber (AUS)  Liu Shiying (CHN)  Lü Huihui (CHN)
2022 Eugene
details
 Kelsey-Lee Barber (AUS)  Kara Winger (USA)  Haruka Kitaguchi (JPN)

Season's bests

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f Kanerva, Juha; Tikander, Vesa. Urheilulajien synty (in Finnish). Teos. ISBN 9789518513455.
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  29. ^ "Athletics Commonwealth Games 2022, Highlights: Eldhose Paul, Aboobacker on podium in triple jump; Pakistan's Arshad Nadeem wins javelin gold". 7 August 2022.
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  33. ^ Jess Whittington (9 May 2021). "Rojas opens with 15.14m, Andrejczyk throws 71.40m". World Athletics. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
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  37. ^ Jon Mulkeen (2 September 2022). "Krop, Mahuchikh and Winger bounce back in Brussels with world-leading marks". World Athletics. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
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  45. ^ Larsson, Peter. "Track & Field all-time performances: Men's non-legal javelin". Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  46. ^ Mariya Abakumova, from Russia, was disqualified in 2016, after retesting. Sayers was later confirmed as the bronze medalist.
  47. ^ Original bronze medalist Russian Mariya Abakumova was later disqualified for failing retests of samples
  48. ^ Original gold medalist Russian Mariya Abakumova was later disqualified for failing retests of samples

External links