|Part of a series on|
Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving African Americans. Most of these institutions were founded during the Reconstruction era and are concentrated in the Southern United States. During the period of racial segregation in the United States, the majority of American institutions of higher education served predominantly white students, and disqualified or limited black American enrollment.
For a century after the abolition of American slavery in 1865, most colleges and universities in the Southern United States prohibited African Americans from attending, while institutions in other parts of the country regularly employed quotas to limit admissions of Black people. HBCUs were established to provide more opportunities to African Americans and are largely responsible for establishing and expanding the African-American middle class.
There are 101 HBCUs in the United States (of 121 institutions that existed during the 1930s), representing three percent of the nation's colleges, including public and private institutions. 27 offer doctoral programs, 52 offer master's programs, 83 offer bachelor's degree programs, and 38 offer associate degrees. Among the graduates of HBCUs are civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., United States Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, and United States Vice President Kamala Harris.
Most HBCUs were established in the South after the American Civil War, often with the assistance of religious missionary organizations based in the northern United States. HBCUs established prior to the American Civil War include Cheyney University of Pennsylvania in 1837, University of the District of Columbia (then known as Miner School for Colored Girls) in 1851, and Lincoln University in 1854. Wilberforce University was also established prior to the American Civil War. The university was founded in 1856 via a collaboration between the African Methodist Episcopal Church of Ohio and the predominantly white Methodist Episcopal Church.
Atlanta University – now Clark Atlanta University – was founded on September 19, 1865, as the first HBCU in the Southern United States. Atlanta University was the first graduate institution to award degrees to African Americans in the nation and the first to award bachelor's degrees to African Americans in the South; Clark College (1869) was the nation's first four-year liberal arts college to serve African-American students. The two consolidated in 1988 to form Clark Atlanta University. Shaw University, founded December 1, 1865, was the second HBCU to be established in the South. The year 1865 also saw the foundation of Storer College (1865–1955) in Harper's Ferry, West Virginia. Storer's former campus and buildings have since been incorporated into Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.
In 1862, the federal government's Morrill Act provided for land grant colleges in each state. Some educational institutions established under the Morrill Act in the North and West were open to Blacks. But 17 states, almost all in the South, required their post-Civil war systems to be segregated and excluded Black students from their land grant colleges. (In the 1870s, Mississippi, Virginia, and South Carolina each assigned one African American college land-grant status: Alcorn University, Hampton Institute, and Claflin University, respectively.) In response, Congress passed the second Morrill Act of 1890, also known as the Agricultural College Act of 1890, requiring states to establish a separate land grant college for Blacks if Blacks were being excluded from the existing land grant college. Many of the HBCUs were founded by states to satisfy the Second Morrill Act. These land grant schools continue to receive annual federal funding for their research, extension, and outreach activities.
In the 1920s and 1930s, historically black colleges developed a strong interest in athletics. Sports were expanding rapidly at state universities, but very few black stars were recruited there. Race newspapers hailed athletic success as a demonstration of racial progress. Black schools hired coaches, recruited and featured stellar athletes, and set up their own leagues.
In the 1930s, many Jewish intellectuals fleeing Europe after the rise of Hitler and anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany following Hitler's elevation to power emigrated to the United States and found work teaching in historically black colleges. In particular, 1933 was a challenging year for many Jewish academics who tried to escape increasingly oppressive Nazi policies, particularly after legislation was passed stripping them of their positions at universities. Jews looking outside of Germany could not find work in other European countries because of calamities like the Spanish Civil War and general antisemitism in Europe. In the US, they hoped to continue their academic careers, but barring a scant few, found little acceptance in elite institutions in Depression-era America, which also had their own undercurrent of antisemitism.
As a result of these phenomena, more than two-thirds of the faculty hired at many HBCUs from 1933 to 1945 had come to the United States to escape from Nazi Germany. HBCUs believed the Jewish professors were valuable faculty that would help strengthen their institutions' credibility. HBCUs had a firm belief in diversity and giving opportunity no matter the race, religion, or country of origin. HBCUs were open to Jews because of their ideas of equal learning spaces. They sought to create an environment where all people felt welcome to study, including women.
World War II
Florida's black junior colleges
After the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954, the legislature of Florida, with support from various counties, opened eleven junior colleges serving the African-American population. Their purpose was to show that separate but equal education was working in Florida. Prior to this, there had been only one junior college in Florida serving African Americans, Booker T. Washington Junior College, in Pensacola, founded in 1949. The new ones were Gibbs Junior College (1957), Roosevelt Junior College (1958), Volusia County Junior College (1958), Hampton Junior College (1958), Rosenwald Junior College (1958), Suwannee River Junior College (1959), Carver Junior College (1960), Collier-Blocker Junior College (1960), Lincoln Junior College (1960), Jackson Junior College (1961), and Johnson Junior College (1962).
The new junior colleges began as extensions of black high schools. They used the same facilities and often the same faculty. Some built their own buildings after a few years. After the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandated an end to school segregation, the colleges were all abruptly closed. Only a fraction of the students and faculty were able to transfer to the previously all-white junior colleges, where they found, at best, an indifferent reception.
A reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965 established a program for direct federal grants to HBCUs, to support their academic, financial, and administrative capabilities. Part B specifically provides for formula-based grants, calculated based on each institution's Pell grant eligible enrollment, graduation rate, and percentage of graduates who continue post-baccalaureate education in fields where African Americans are underrepresented. Some colleges with a predominantly black student body are not classified as HBCUs because they were founded (or opened their doors to African Americans) after the implementation of the Sweatt v. Painter (1950) and Brown v. Board of Education (1954) rulings by the U.S. Supreme Court (the court decisions which outlawed racial segregation of public education facilities) and the Higher Education Act of 1965.
In 1980, Jimmy Carter signed an executive order to distribute adequate resources and funds to strengthen the nation's public and private HBCUs. His executive order created the White House Initiative on historically black colleges and universities (WHIHBCU), which is a federally funded program that operates within the U.S. Department of Education. In 1989, George H. W. Bush continued Carter's pioneering spirit by signing Executive Order 12677, which created the presidential advisory board on HBCUs, to counsel the government and the secretary on the future development of these organizations.
Starting in 2001, directors of libraries of several HBCUs began discussions about ways to pool their resources and work collaboratively. In 2003, this partnership was formalized as the HBCU Library Alliance, "a consortium that supports the collaboration of information professionals dedicated to providing an array of resources designed to strengthen historically black colleges and Universities and their constituents."
In 2015, the Bipartisan Congressional Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Caucus was established by U.S. Representatives Alma S. Adams and Bradley Byrne. The caucus advocates for HBCUs on Capitol Hill. As of May 2022, there are over 100 elected politicians who are members of the caucus.
Annually, the U.S. Department of Education designates one week in the fall as "National HBCU Week". During this week, conferences and events are held in Washington, D.C. discussing and celebrating HBCUs, as well as recognizing some notable HBCU scholars and alumni.
In 2015, the share of black students attending HBCUs had dropped to 9% of the total number of black students enrolled in degree-granting institutions nationwide. This figure is a decline from the 13% of black students who enrolled in an HBCU in 2000 and 17% who enrolled in 1980. This is a result of desegregation, rising incomes and increased access to financial aid, which has created more college options for black students.
The percentages of bachelor's and master's degrees awarded to black students by HBCUs has decreased over time. HBCUs awarded 35% of the bachelor's degrees and 21% of the master's degrees earned by blacks in 1976–77, compared with the 14% and 6% respectively of bachelor's and master's degrees earned by blacks in 2014–15. Additionally, the percentage of black doctoral degree recipients who received their degrees from HBCUs was lower in 2014–15 (12%) than in 1976–77 (14%).
The number of total students enrolled at an HBCU rose by 32% between 1976 and 2015, from 223,000 to 293,000. Total enrollment in degree-granting institutions nationwide increased by 81%, from 11 million to 20 million, in the same period.
Although HBCUs were originally founded to educate black students, their diversity has increased over time. In 2015, students who were either white, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, or Native American made up 22% of total enrollment at HBCUs, compared with 15% in 1976.
There are also developments in how African Americans may choose or not choose an HBCU. HBCUs are at risk of losing ground in terms of quality of their applicants as well. The current admission policies of predominately White institutions (PWIs) ensure that qualified applicants of any color are accepted and most top institutions actively recruit minority students. Well qualified minority students are often the target of frenzied competition (Cross, 2007). This competition is reflected in the inducements offered by PWIs to qualified Black applicants, most notably monetary incentives, which many students and their parents find too attractive to pass up. For this reason and others, fewer Black undergraduates are choosing to attend HBCUs, this figure has gradually declined to 22% as of 2002 (U.S. Department of Education, 2004). This dwindling percentage, coupled with opportunities at PWIs, have led some to speculate whether the HBCU has outlived its purpose and lost its relevance for Black youth (Lemelle, 2002; Sowell 1993; Suggs, 1997b).
Racial diversity post-2000
Following the enactment of Civil Rights laws in the 1960s, many educational institutions in the United States that receive federal funding have undertaken affirmative action to increase their racial diversity. Some historically black colleges and universities now have non-black majorities, including West Virginia State University and Bluefield State University, whose student bodies have had large white majorities since the mid-1960s.
As many HBCUs have made a concerted effort to maintain enrollment levels and often offer relatively affordable tuition, the percentage of non–African-American enrollment has risen. The following table highlights HBCUs with high non–African American enrollments:
|Bluefield State University||West Virginia||8||92|
|West Virginia State University||West Virginia||8||92|
|Kentucky State University||Kentucky||46||54|
|University of the District of Columbia||District of Columbia||59||41|
|Delaware State University||Delaware||64||36|
|Fayetteville State University||North Carolina||60||40|
|Winston-Salem State University||North Carolina||71||29|
|Elizabeth City State University||North Carolina||76||24|
|Xavier University of Louisiana||Louisiana||70||30|
|North Carolina A&T State University||North Carolina||80||20|
|Lincoln University (Pennsylvania)||Pennsylvania||84||16|
Other HBCUs with relatively high non–African American student populations
According to the U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges 2011 edition, the proportion of white American students at Langston University was 12%; at Shaw University, 12%; at Tennessee State University, 12%; at the University of Maryland Eastern Shore, 12%; and at North Carolina Central University, 10%. The U.S. News & World Report's statistical profiles indicate that several other HBCUs have relatively significant percentages of non–African American student populations consisting of Asian, Hispanic, white American, and foreign students.
Special academic programs
HBCU libraries have formed the HBCU Library Alliance. That alliance, together with Cornell University, have a joint program to digitize HBCU collections. The project is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Additionally, more historically black colleges and universities are offering online education programs. As of November 23, 2010, nineteen historically black colleges and universities offer online degree programs. The growth in these programs is driven by partnerships with online educational entrepreneurs like Ezell Brown.
NCAA Division I has two historically black athletic conferences: Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference and Southwestern Athletic Conference. The top football teams from the conferences have played each other in postseason bowl games: the Pelican Bowl (1970s), the Heritage Bowl (1990s), and the Celebration Bowl (2015–present). These conferences are home to all Division I HBCUs except for Hampton University and Tennessee State University. Tennessee State has been a member of the Ohio Valley Conference since 1986, while Hampton left the MEAC in 2018 for the Big South Conference. In 2021, North Carolina A&T State University made the same conference move that Hampton made three years earlier (MEAC to Big South). Both Hampton and North Carolina A&T later moved their athletic programs to the Colonial Athletic Association and its technically separate football league of CAA Football; Hampton joined both sides of the CAA in 2022, while A&T joined the all-sports CAA in 2022 before joining CAA Football in 2023.
The mostly HBCU Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference are part of the NCAA Division II, whereas the HBCU Gulf Coast Athletic Conference is part of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.
Notable HBCU alumni
HBCUs have a rich legacy of matriculating many leaders in the fields of business, law, science, education, military service, entertainment, art, and sports.
- Alcee Hastings, US Congressman from Florida's 20th congressional district – Fisk University, Howard University, Florida A&M University
- Alice Walker, novelist and poet – Spelman College
- Althea Gibson, the first African American to win a Grand Slam title had a full athletic scholarship to Florida A&M University
- Anika Noni Rose, the original voice of the first African American Disney princess (Tiana) - Florida A&M University
- Ben Wallace, former 4-time NBA All-Star and NBA Defensive Player of the Year - Virginia Union University
- Claude McKay, poet, Tuskegee University
- Doug Williams, first black NFL quarterback to win Superbowl - Grambling State
- Ed Bradley, first black White House correspondent for CBS News - Cheyney University of Pennsylvania
- Edward Brooke, first African-American elected by popular vote to United States Senate and to serve as Massachusetts Attorney General - Howard University
- James Clyburn, US Congressman from South Carolina's 6th congressional district and Majority Whip of the 116th United States Congress – South Carolina State University
- Jerry Rice, considered the greatest NFL wide receiver of all-time - Mississippi Valley State
- NASA mathematician Katherine Johnson attended West Virginia State College (now West Virginia State University).
- Leon H. Sullivan, developer of the Sullivan Principles used to end apartheid in South Africa, attended West Virginia State College (now West Virginia State University).
- Lonnie Johnson, inventor, NASA engineer – Tuskegee University
- Medgar Wiley Evers - civil rights leader - Alcorn State University
- Nikki Giovanni, poet – Fisk University
- Randy Jackson, original judge on American Idol - Southern University
- Ralph Abernathy, civil rights activist, minister – Clark Atlanta University, Alabama State University
- Rod Paige, first African-American to serve as the U.S. education chief - Jackson State University
- Astronaut Dr. Ronald McNair graduated from North Carolina A&T State University.
- Roscoe Lee Browne, prolific actor and director, graduated from Lincoln University. Browne occasionally returned to Lincoln between 1946 and 1952 to teach English, French and comparative literature.
- Toni Braxton, R&B artist with over 70 million records sold - Bowie State
- Tom Joyner, first African-American inducted into the National Radio Hall of Fame - Tuskegee University
- The Tuskegee Airmen were educated at Tuskegee University.
- Walter Payton, considered one of the greatest running backs in NFL history – Jackson State University
- Wanda Sykes, Emmy-winning comedian, novelist, and writer – Hampton University
Modern presidential and federal support
Federal funding for HBCUs has notably increased in recent years. Proper federal support of HBCUs has become more of a key issue in modern U.S. presidential elections.
In 2021, President Joe Biden first year in office, he invested a historic $5.8 billion to support HBCUs. In 2022, Biden's administration announced an additional $2.7 billion through his American Rescue Plan.
HBCU Buzz is a popular media platform primarily about HBCUs. Its coverage focuses on telling the stories of HBCUs across the nation, highlighting their culture, and recognizing the achievements of HBCU-educated individuals. Established in 2011, HBCU Buzz serves as a resource tool for prospective students, current students, and alumni of HBCUs. HBCU Buzz organizes the annual HBCU Top 30 Under 30 Awards, to celebrate the achievements of alumni of HBCU in various fields of endeavors such as politics, public service, technology, entertainment, entrepreneurship, fashion, health, education and money.
- Black Ivy League
- HBCU band
- Honda Battle of the Bands
- Minority-serving institution
- National Museum of African American History and Culture
- Thurgood Marshall College Fund
- United Negro College Fund
- 20 U.S. Code sec.1061,  Archived December 20, 2022, at the Wayback Machinehttps://USCode.house.gov Archived December 20, 2022, at the Wayback Machine For a compact overview of HBCU history, see Walter R. Allen, Joseph O. Jewell, Kimberly A. Griffin, & De'Sha S. Wolf, Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Honoring the Past, Engaging the Present, Touching the Future, 76 Journal of Negro Education, pp. 263–280 (2007).
- Anderson, J.D. (1988). The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935. University of North Carolina Press.
- "White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities". Ed.gov. April 11, 2008. Archived from the original on October 5, 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2008.
- E., Wooten, Melissa (2016). In the face of inequality. [Place of publication not identified]: State Univ of New York Press. ISBN 978-1438456904. OCLC 946968175.
- Harris, Leslie M. (March 26, 2015). "The Long, Ugly History of Racism at American Universities". The New Republic.
- Marybeth Gasman, Envisioning Black Colleges: A History of the United Negro College Fund (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007).
- Marybeth Gasman and Felecia Commodore (eds.), Opportunities and Challenges at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (New York: Palgrave Press, 2014). ISBN 978-1-349-50267-7
- Favors, J. (2020). Shelter in a time of storm: How Black colleges fostered generations of leadership and activism. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1469648330
- "The story of historically black colleges in the US". BBC News. February 15, 2019.
- "Despite Obstacles, Black Colleges Are Pipelines to the Middle Class, Study Finds. Here's Its List of the Best". Chronicle.com. September 30, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
- "African Americans and College Education by the Numbers". UNCF. November 29, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
- "A look at historically black colleges and universities as Howard turns 150". Pewresearch.org. February 28, 2017. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- "Historically Black Colleges and Universities – American School Search". American-school-search.com. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- Marybeth Gasman, The Changing Face of Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Philadelphia, PA: Penn Center for Minority Serving Institutions, University of Pennsylvania, 2013.[ISBN missing]
- Casey Boland, Marybeth Gasman et al., Contemporary Public HBCUs: A Four State Comparison, Philadelphia, PA: Penn Center for Minority Serving Institutions, University of Pennsylvania, Spring 2014.[ISBN missing]
- For detail of the university's early history from its origins as the Institute for Colored Youth, see Milton M. James, The Institute for Colored Youth, 21 Negro History Bulletin p. 83 (1958)
- Initially chartered as the Ashmun Institute, it changed its name in 1866. It was the first degree-granting HBCU. See Lincoln University, History, https://www.lincoln.edu/about/history Archived May 31, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. See also Andrew E. Murray, The Founding of Lincoln University, 51 Journal of Presbyterian History p. 392 (1973).
- Originally proposed as Ohio African University, the founders changed the name to Wilberforce University, to honor the English abolitionist William Wilberforce, before its corporate charter was granted. Frederick Alphonso McGinnis, A History and Interpretation of Wilberforce University p. 33 (1941). See also Charles Killian, Wilberforce University: The Reality of Bishop Payne's Dream, 34 Negro History Bulletin p. 83 (1971).
- Marybeth Gasman, Envisioning Black Colleges: A History of the United Negro College Fund (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007).ISBN 978-0-8018-8604-1
- Carrillo, Karen Juanita (2012). African American History Day By Day – A Reference Guide To Events. ISBN 978-1598843613.
- Anderson, J.D. (1988). The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935. University of North Carolina Press.
- Roy, Lisa (December 18, 2013). "Storer College (1867–1956)". Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- (7 U.S.C. § 301 et seq.)
- John W. Davis, The Negro Land-Grant College, 2 Journal of Negro Education p. 312 (1933).
- See generally, John W. Davis, The Negro Land-Grant College, 2 Journal of Negro Education (1933).
- Miller, Patrick B. (1995). "To "Bring the Race along Rapidly": Sport, Student Culture, and Educational Mission at Historically Black Colleges during the Interwar Years". History of Education Quarterly. 35 (2): 111–33. doi:10.2307/369629. ISSN 0018-2680. JSTOR 369629. S2CID 147170256.
- Miller, Patrick B; Wiggins, David Kenneth, eds. (2004). Sport and the color line: black athletes and race relations in twentieth-century America. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415946100. OCLC 53155353.
- "Jewish Prof's and HBCU's – African American Registry". African American Registry. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
- "Jewish Prof's and HBCU's – African American Registry". African American Registry. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
- Hoch, Paul K. (May 11, 1983). "The reception of central European refugee physicists of the 1930s: USSR, UK, US". Annals of Science. 40 (3): 217–46. doi:10.1080/00033798300200211. ISSN 0003-3790.
- Gilligan, Heather (February 10, 2017). "After fleeing the Nazis, many Jewish refugee professors found homes at historically black colleges". Timeline. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- Marybeth Gasman, “Scylla and Charybdis: Navigating the Waters of Academic Freedom at Fisk University during Charles S. Johnson’s Administration (1946–1956),” American Educational Research Journal 36, no. 4 (1999): 739–58.
- Willie, Charles Vert; Reddick, Richard J.; Brown, Ronald (2006). The Black College Mystique. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0742546172.
jewish refugees teaching in black colleges.
- Foster, Lenoar (November 11, 2001). "The Not-So-Invisible Professors". Urban Education. 36 (5): 611–29. doi:10.1177/0042085901365006. ISSN 0042-0859. S2CID 145633996.
- Jewell, Joseph O. (January 1, 2002). "To Set an Example: The Tradition of Diversity at Historically Black Colleges and Universities". Urban Education. 37 (1): 7–21. doi:10.1177/0042085902371002. S2CID 145115998.
- "How HBCUs Contributed to the 1940s War Effort". Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. July 12, 2012.
- Philo Hutcheson, Marybeth Gasman, and Kijua Sanders-McMurtry, “Race and Equality in the Academy: Rethinking Higher Education Actors and the Struggle for Equality in the Post-World War II Period,” Journal of Higher Education 82, no. 2 (2011): 121–53
- Smith, Walter L. (1994), The Magnificent Twelve: Florida's Black Junior Colleges, Winter Park, Florida: FOUR-G Publishers, ISBN 1885066015
- 20 U.S.C. § 1062.
- The Act, as amended, defines a "part B institution" as: "...any historically black college or university that was established before 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, the education of black Americans, and that is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary [of Education] to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an agency or association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation." U.S. Department of Education (January 15, 2008). "HBCUs: A National Resource". White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
20 U.S.C. § 1061.
- "About Us – White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities". Sites.ed.gov. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Gasman, Marybeth; Tudico, Christopher L. (2008). Historically Black Colleges and Universities: triumphs, troubles, and taboos (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0230617261.
- "HBCU Library Alliance". Hbuclibraries.org. April 23, 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
- "Members of Congress Launch Bipartisan Congressional HBCU Caucus". Byrne.house.gov. April 28, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- "Bipartisan Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Caucus". October 11, 2016.
- "2015 HBCU Week Conference – White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities". Sites.ed.gov. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- "Gov. Kay Ivey signs proclamation declaring October Alabama HBCU Month". October 13, 2022.
- "Historically Black Colleges and Universities in N.C". Spectrumlocalnews.com. February 23, 2022. Retrieved August 4, 2022.
- Marybeth Gasman & Thai-Huy Nguyen, Making Black Scientists: A Call to Action. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2019). ISBN 978-0674916586
- "The NCES Fast Facts Tool provides quick answers to many education questions (National Center for Education Statistics)". Nces.ed.gov. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- Robert Nathenson, Andrés Castro Samayoa, & Marybeth Gasman, Moving Upward & Onward: Income Mobility and Historically Black Colleges and Universities, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Center for Minority Serving Institutions, 2019.[ISBN missing]
- William Casey Boland, Marybeth Gasman, Andrés Castro Samayoa, and DeShaun Bennett, “The Effect of Enrolling in Minority Serving Institutions on Earnings Compared to Non-Minority Serving Institutions: A College Scorecard Analysis,” Research in Higher Education (2019).
- "Digest of Education Statistics, 2016". Nces.ed.gov. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- "Economic Impact of the Nation's Historically Black Colleges and Universities" (PDF). Nces.ed.gov. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- "A JSTOR Time Line", JSTOR, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. XXVII–XXXVI, December 31, 2012, doi:10.1515/9781400843114.xxvii, ISBN 978-1-4008-4311-4, archived from the original on February 1, 2021, retrieved November 17, 2020
- Robert Palmer, Robert Shorette, and Marybeth Gasman (Eds.), Exploring Diversity at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Implications for Policy and Practice (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2014).ISBN 978-1119108436
- Marybeth Gasman and Felecia Commodore (Eds.), Opportunities and Challenges at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (New York: Palgrave Press, 2014). ISBN 978-1-349-50267-7
- "More Non-Black Students Attending HBCUs" Archived July 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Newsone.com (2010-10-07). Retrieved on 2013-08-09.
- "Why Black Colleges Might Be the Best Bargains". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Marybeth Gasman, Andrés Castro Samayoa, & Michael Nettles (Eds.). The Return on Investment for Minority Serving Institutions. (San Francisco, CA: Wiley Press, 2017).[ISBN missing]
- Marybeth Gasman, Andrés Castro Samayoa, William Casey Boland, & Paola Esmieu (Eds.), Educational Challenges and Opportunities at Minority Serving Institutions (New York: Routledge Press, 2018) ISBN 978-1138572614.
- "Apart No More? HBCUs Heading Into an Era of Change". hbcuconnect.com. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- "Bluefield State University : Student Profile Analysis : College Wide Summary : Fall Term 2017 Census" (PDF). Bluefieldstate.edu. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- "West Virginia State University : Office of Institutional Research and Assessment : 2015–2016 University Factbook" (PDF). Wvstateu.edu. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- "Kentucky State University : Statistics" (PDF). Kysu.edu. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- "University of the District of Columbia : Factbook" (PDF). Docs.udc.edu. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- "Delaware State University : Factbook" (PDF). Desu.edu. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- "Fayetteville State University : Fact Book : 2016–2017" (PDF). Uncfsu.edu. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- "Tableau Public". Public.tableau.com. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- "Elizabeth City State University : Factbook" (PDF). Ecsu.edu. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges, 2011 ed. Directory p. 182
- "NCAT IR – University Fast Facts". ir.ncat.edu. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- "Lincoln University : Factbook" (PDF). Lincoln.edu. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges, 2011 ed. Directory p. 129
- "HBCU Library Alliance – Cornell University Library Digitization Initiative Update" (PDF). Hbculigraries.org. 2006. Retrieved December 1, 2010.
- "Modest Gains for Black Colleges Online". Insidehighered.com. 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- "N.C. A&T Announces New Athletics Affiliation: Big South Conference". Ncat.edu. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- "CAA Welcomes Hampton University, Monmouth University and Stony Brook University as New Members" (Press release). Colonial Athletic Association. January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
- "CAA Welcomes North Carolina A&T as Newest Member of the Conference" (Press release). Colonial Athletic Association. February 22, 2022. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
- "NAIA Conferences". Naia.org. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- "Trump signs bill restoring funding for black colleges". Associated Press. April 20, 2021.
- The White House. "FACT SHEET: The Biden-Harris Administration's Historic Investments and Support for Historically Black Colleges and Universities". The White House. Archived from the original on October 25, 2022. Retrieved October 25, 2022.
- "FACT SHEET: State-by-State Analysis of Record $2.7 Billion American Rescue Plan Investment in Historically Black Colleges and Universities". March 7, 2022.
- "Presidential Executive Order on The White House Initiative to Promote Excellence and Innovation at Historically Black Colleges and Universities". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved October 26, 2020 – via National Archives.
- "HBCU Buzz Presents: 2020 Top 30 Under 30 leaders from HBCUs". Atlanta Daily World. July 9, 2020. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
- Meade, Tommy G. Jr. "This Rapper Just Pledged To Pay A Semester's Tuition For Five HBCU Students | The HBCU App News". Retrieved October 26, 2020.
- Fair, Malcolm Bernard HBCU College. "15 Reasons Going To An HBCU Is An Experience Like No Other". Malcolm Bernard HBCU College Fair. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
- Arnold, Bruce Makoto; Mitchell, Roland; Arnold, Noelle W. (2015). "Massified Illusions of Difference: Photography and the Mystique of the American Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)". Journal of American Studies of Turkey. 41: 69–94. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
- Betsey, Charles L., ed. (2011). Historically black colleges and universities. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1412812191.
- Brooks, F. Erik; Starks, Glenn L. (2011). Historically Black colleges and universities: an encyclopedia. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0313394164.
- Cohen, Rodney T. (2000). The Black Colleges of Atlanta (College History Series). Arcadia Pub. ISBN 978-0738505541. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
- Favors, Jelani M. (2019). Shelter in a Time of Storm: How Black Colleges Fostered Generations of Leadership and Activism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9781469648330. OCLC 1048660765.
- Gasman, Marybeth; Tudico, Christopher L., eds. (2008). Historically Black colleges and universities: triumphs, troubles, and taboos (1st ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230602731.
- Harris, Adam (2021). The State Must Provide: Why America's Colleges Have Always Been Unequal—and How to Set Them Right. New York: Ecco. ISBN 9780062976482. OCLC 1204635631.
- Lovett, Bobby L. (2015). America's historically Black colleges & universities: a narrative history from the nineteenth century into the twenty-first century (First ed.). Mercer University Press. ISBN 978-0881465341.
- Mays, Benjamin E. (1960). "The Significance of the Negro Private and Church-Related College". The Journal of Negro Education. 29 (3): 245–51. doi:10.2307/2293639. ISSN 0022-2984. JSTOR 2293639.
- Minor, James T. (2008). "A Contemporary Perspective on the Role of Public HBCUs: Perspicacity from Mississippi". The Journal of Negro Education. 77 (4): 323–35. ISSN 0022-2984. JSTOR 25608702.
- One among the others (March 29, 2018). "Reflections of an HBCU Alumnus (Howard University)". Anuntoldstoryblog.
- Palmer, Robert T.; Hilton, Adriel A.; Fountaine, Tiffany P., eds. (2012). Black graduate education at historically Black colleges and universities trends, experiences, and outcomes. Information Age Pub. ISBN 978-1617358524.
- Provasnik, Stephen; Shafer, Linda L. (2004). Historically Black Colleges and Universities, 1976 to 2001. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Government Printing Office. NCES 2004–062.
- Roebuck, Julian B.; Murty, Komanduri Srinivasa (1993). Historically black colleges and universities: their place in American higher education. Praeger. ISBN 978-0275942670.
- Wright, Stephanie R. (2008). "Self-Determination, Politics, and Gender on Georgia's Black College Campuses, 1875–1900". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 92 (1): 93–119. ISSN 0016-8297. JSTOR 40585040.